<PAGE>   1
                       SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
                             WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549



                                   ----------


                               AMENDMENT NO. 1 TO
                                    FORM 8-A



                FOR REGISTRATION OF CERTAIN CLASSES OF SECURITIES
                     PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE
                         SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934




                                   VIVUS, INC.
             (Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)



              Delaware                                   94-3136179
(State of incorporation or organization)      (IRS Employer Identification No.)


                              545 Middlefield Road
                          Menlo Park, California 94025
               (Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)




Securities to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:


<TABLE>
<CAPTION>
         Title of each class                     Name of each exchange on which
         to be so registered                     each class is to be registered
         -------------------                     ------------------------------
<S>                                              <C>
                None                                          None
</TABLE>



Securities to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

                         Preferred Share Purchase Rights
                                (Title of Class)

<PAGE>   2
Item 1.  Description of Securities to be Registered.

         Effective as of February 1, 1996, pursuant to a Preferred Shares Rights
Agreement (the "Rights Agreement") between Vivus, Inc. (the "Company") and First
Interstate Bank of California, as Rights Agent (the "Rights Agent"), the
Company's Board of Directors declared a dividend of one right (a "Right") to
purchase one one-thousandth share of the Company's Series A Participating
Preferred Stock ("Series A Preferred") for each outstanding share of Common
Stock, no par value ("Common Shares"), of the Company. The dividend is payable
on February 28, 1996 (the "Record Date") to shareholders of record as of the
close of business on that date. Each Right entitles the registered holder to
purchase from the Company one one-thousandth of a share of Series A Preferred at
an exercise price of $100 (the "Purchase Price"), subject to adjustment in the
event the Company declares a dividend on the Common Stock payable in Common
Stock, subdivides the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock into a larger
number of such shares or combines the number of outstanding shares of Common
Stock into a smaller number of such shares, among other circumstances. In
addition, under certain circumstances described more fully herein, the Rights
may become exercisable for a number of Common Shares having a value equal to two
times the Purchase Price and/or Common Stock of certain acquiring companies
having a value equal to two times the Purchase Price.

         The following summary of the principal terms of the Rights Agreement is
a general description only and is subject to the detailed terms and conditions
of the Rights Agreement. A copy of the Rights Agreement is attached as 
Exhibit 99.1 to this Registration Statement and is incorporated herein by 
reference; capitalized terms used but not otherwise defined herein shall 
have the meanings ascribed to them in the Rights Agreement.


                                       -2-

<PAGE>   3
Certain Anti-takeover Effects

         The Rights approved by the Board are designed to protect and maximize
the value of the outstanding equity interests in the Company in the event of an
unsolicited attempt by an acquiror to take over the Company, in a manner or on
terms not approved by the Board of Directors. Takeover attempts frequently
include coercive tactics to deprive the Company's Board of Directors and its
shareholders of any real opportunity to determine the destiny of the Company.
The Rights have been declared by the Board in order to deter such tactics,
including a gradual accumulation in the open market of a 20% or greater position
to be followed by a merger or a partial or two-tier tender offer that does not
treat all shareholders equally. These tactics can operate to unfairly pressure
shareholders, force them out of their investment and deprive them of the full
value of their shares.

         The Rights are not intended to prevent a takeover of the Company and
will not do so. The Rights may be redeemed by the Company at $.01 per Right
within ten days (or on such later date as may be determined by a majority of the
Board of Directors, excluding directors affiliated with an Acquiring Person)
after the accumulation of 20% or more of the Company's shares by a single
acquiror or group. Accordingly, the Rights should not interfere with any merger
or business combination approved by the Board of Directors.

         However, the Rights may have the effect of rendering more difficult or
discouraging an acquisition of the Company deemed undesirable by the Board of
Directors. The Rights may cause substantial dilution to a person or group that
attempts to acquire the Company on terms or in a manner not approved by the
Company's Board of Directors, except pursuant to an offer conditioned upon the
negation, purchase or redemption of the Rights. As a result, while the Rights
may provide the Board with leverage to obtain a higher price from a potential
acquiror, they may also prevent or


                                       -3-

<PAGE>   4
deter offers not approved by the Board, and therefore deprive shareholders,
without providing them with the opportunity to vote thereon, of the benefits of
offers which may be at a higher price than the current market price of the
Company's Common Stock. In addition, assuming an active trading market in the
Rights themselves does not develop, shareholders with lesser financial means
might not be able to take full economic advantage of the Rights. Further, the
implementation of a rights plan may heighten the susceptibility of the Company
to greenmail by shareholders who threaten to acquire a sufficient equity
position to pass the Rights' triggering threshold, although the Board can
respond to any such action by redeeming the Rights at $0.01 per Right.

         Issuance of the Rights does not in any way weaken the financial
strength of the Company or interfere with its business plans. The issuance of
the Rights themselves has no dilutive effect, will not affect reported earnings
per share, should not be taxable to the Company or to its shareholders, and will
not change the way in which the Company's shares are presently traded. The
Company's Board of Directors believes that the Rights represent a sound and
reasonable means of addressing the complex issues of corporate policy created by
the current takeover environment.

Rights Evidenced by Common Share Certificates

         The Rights will not be exercisable until the Distribution Date (defined
below). Prior to the Distribution Date, certificates for the Rights ("Rights
Certificates") will not be sent to shareholders and the Rights will attach to
and trade only together with the Common Shares. Accordingly, Common Share
certificates outstanding on the Record Date will evidence the Rights related
thereto, and Common Share certificates issued after the Record Date but prior to
the Distribution Date will contain a notation incorporating the Rights Agreement
by reference. Until the Distribution Date (or


                                       -4-

<PAGE>   5
earlier redemption or expiration of the Rights), the surrender or transfer of
any certificates for Common Shares, even without notation or a copy of the
Summary of Rights being attached thereto (but as to certificates representing
Common Shares issued after the Record Date, only if they bear the legend
required by the Rights Agreement), will also constitute the transfer of the
Rights associated with the Common Shares represented by such certificate.

Distribution Date

         The Rights will separate from the Common Shares, Rights Certificates
will be issued and the Rights will become exercisable upon the earlier of: (i)
10 days (or such later date as may be determined by a majority of the Board of
Directors, excluding directors affiliated with the Acquiring Person, as defined
below (the "Continuing Directors")) following a public announcement that a
person or group of affiliated or associated persons (an "Acquiring Person") has
acquired, or obtained the right to acquire, beneficial ownership of 20% or more
of the outstanding Common Shares, or (ii) 10 days (or such later date as may be
determined by a majority of the Continuing Directors) following the commencement
of, or announcement of an intention to make, a tender offer or exchange offer
the consummation of which would result in the beneficial ownership by a person
or group of 20% or more of the outstanding Common Shares. The earlier of such
dates is referred to as the "Distribution Date."

Issuance of Rights Certificates; Expiration of Rights

         As soon as practicable following the Distribution Date, separate Rights
Certificates will be mailed to holders of record of the Common Shares as of the
close of business on the Distribution 


                                       -5-

<PAGE>   6
Date and such separate Rights Certificates alone will evidence the Rights from
and after the Distribution Date. All Common Shares issued prior to the
Distribution Date will be issued with Rights. Common Shares issued after the
Distribution Date may be issued with Rights if such shares are issued (i) upon
the conversion of outstanding convertible debentures or any other convertible
securities issued after adoption of the Rights Agreement or (ii) pursuant to the
exercise of stock options or under employee benefit plans or arrangements unless
such issuance would result in (or create a risk that) such options, plans or
arrangements would not qualify for otherwise available special tax treatment.
Except as otherwise determined by the Board of Directors, no other Common Shares
issued after the Distribution Date will be issued with Rights. The Rights will
expire on the earliest of (i) February 13, 2006 (the "Final Expiration Date"),
(ii) redemption or exchange of the Rights as described below, or (iii)
consummation of an acquisition of the Company satisfying certain conditions by a
person who acquired shares pursuant to a Permitted Offer as described below.

Initial Exercise of the Rights

         Following the Distribution Date, and until one of the further events
described below, holders of the Rights will be entitled to receive, upon
exercise and the payment of $100 per Right, one one-thousandth share of the
Series A Preferred, subject to adjustment in the event the Company declares a
dividend on the Common Shares payable in Common Shares, subdivides the number of
outstanding shares of Common Shares into a larger number of such shares or
combines the number of outstanding shares of Common Shares into a smaller number
of such shares, among other circumstances. In addition, under certain
circumstances described more fully herein, the Rights may become exercisable for
Common Shares having a value equal to two times the Purchase Price and/or Common
Stock of 


                                       -6-

<PAGE>   7
certain acquiring companies having a value equal to two times the Purchase
Price.

Right to Buy Company Common Shares

         Unless the Rights are earlier redeemed, in the event that an Acquiring
Person becomes the beneficial owner of 20% or more of the Company's Common
Shares then outstanding (other than pursuant to a Permitted Offer), then proper
provision will be made so that each holder of a Right which has not theretofore
been exercised (other than Rights beneficially owned by the Acquiring Person,
which will thereafter be void) will thereafter have the right to receive, upon
exercise and payment of the Purchase Price, Common Shares having a value equal
to two times the Purchase Price. For example, if the market price of Common
Shares on the Shares Acquisition Date was $50.00, a person holding one Right
could purchase 4 Common Shares upon exercise of such Right ($100/25.00), whereas
he could only purchase 2 Common Shares ($100/50.00) in the absence of such
Rights. Rights are not exercisable following the occurrence of an event as
described above until such time as the Rights are no longer redeemable by the
Company as set forth below.

         In the event that the Company does not have sufficient Common Shares
available for all Rights to be exercised, or the Board decides that it is
necessary and not contrary to the interests of Rights holders to do so, the
Company may instead substitute cash, assets or other securities for the Common
Shares for which the Rights would have been exercisable under this provision.

Right to Buy Acquiring Company Stock

         Similarly, unless the Rights are earlier redeemed, in the event that,
after the Shares Acquisition Date (as defined below), (i) the Company is
acquired in a merger or other business combination transaction, or (ii) 50% or
more of the Company's consolidated assets or earning power are sold 


                                       -7-

<PAGE>   8
(other than in transactions in the ordinary course of business) (either of which
event is referred to herein as an "Acquisition"), proper provision must be made
so that each holder of a Right which has not theretofore been exercised (other
than Rights beneficially owned by the Acquiring Person, which will thereafter be
void) will thereafter have the right to receive, upon exercise, shares of Common
Stock of the acquiring company having a value equal to two times the Purchase
Price (unless the transaction satisfies certain conditions and is consummated
with a person who acquired shares pursuant to a Permitted Offer, in which case
the Rights will expire). So (assuming no satisfaction of such conditions) if for
example the market price of the acquiror's stock on the date of the Acquisition
were $25.00, a person holding one Right could purchase 8 shares of the
acquiror's Common Stock upon exercise of such Right ($100/$12.50), whereas he
could only purchase 4 shares of acquiror's Common Stock ($100/$25.00) in the
absence of such Rights.

Permitted Offer

         A Permitted Offer means a tender offer for all outstanding Common
Shares that has been determined by a majority of the Continuing Directors to be
adequate and otherwise in the best interests of the Company and its
shareholders. Where the Board of Directors has determined that a tender offer
constitutes a Permitted Offer, the Rights will not become exercisable to
purchase Common Shares or shares of the acquiring company (as the case may be)
at the discounted price described above.


                                       -8-

<PAGE>   9
Exchange Provision

         At any time after the acquisition by an Acquiring Person of 20% or more
of the Company's outstanding Common Shares and prior to the acquisition by such
Acquiring Person of 50% or more of the Company's outstanding Common Shares, the
Board of Directors of the Company may exchange the Rights (other than Rights
owned by the Acquiring Person), in whole or in part, at an exchange ratio of one
Common Share per Right.

Redemption

         At any time on or prior to the close of business on the earlier of (i)
the 10th day following the acquisition by an Acquiring Person (the "Share
Acquisition Date") or such later date as may be determined by a majority of the
Continuing Directors and publicly announced by the Company, or (ii) the Final
Expiration Date of the Rights, the Company may redeem the Rights in whole, but
not in part, at a price of $.01 per Right.

Adjustments to Prevent Dilution

         The Purchase Price payable, the number of Rights, and the number of
Series A Preferred or Common Shares or other securities or property issuable
upon exercise of the Rights are subject to adjustment from time to time in
connection with the dilutive issuances by the Company as set forth in the Rights
Agreement. With certain exceptions, no adjustment in the Purchase Price will be
required until cumulative adjustments require an adjustment of at least 1% in
such Purchase Price.


                                       -9-

<PAGE>   10
Cash Paid Instead of Issuing Fractional Shares

         No fractional portion less than integral multiples of one Common Share
will be issued upon exercise of a Right and in lieu thereof, an adjustment in
cash will be made based on the market price of the Common Shares on the last
trading date prior to the date of exercise.

No Shareholders' Rights Prior to Exercise

         Until a Right is exercised, the holder thereof, as such, will have no
rights as a stockholder of the Company (other than any rights resulting from
such holder's ownership of Common Shares), including, without limitation, the
right to vote or to receive dividends.

Amendment of Rights Agreement

         The provisions of the Rights Agreement may be supplemented or amended
by the Board of Directors in any manner prior to the close of business on the
Distribution Date without the approval of Rights holders. After the Distribution
Date, the provisions of the Rights Agreement may be amended by the Board in
order to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, to make changes which do
not adversely affect the interests of holders of Rights (excluding the interests
of any Acquiring Person), or to shorten or lengthen any time period under the
Rights Agreement; provided, however, that no amendment to adjust the time period
governing redemption shall be made at such time as the Rights are not
redeemable.


                                      -10-

<PAGE>   11
Rights and Preferences of the Series A Preferred

         Series A Preferred purchasable upon exercise of the Rights will not be
redeemable. Each share of Series A Preferred will be entitled to an aggregate
dividend of 1,000 times the dividend declared per Common Share. In the event of
liquidation, the holders of the Series A Preferred will be entitled to a minimum
preferential liquidation payment equal to the greater of (i) $1,000 per share or
(ii) 1,000 times the per share amount to be distributed to the holders of the
Common Shares. Each share of Series A Preferred will have 1,000 votes, voting
together with the Common Shares. In the event of any merger, consolidation or
other transaction in which the Common Shares are changed or exchanged, each
share of Series A Preferred will be entitled to receive 1,000 times the amount
received per Common Share. These rights are protected by customary anti-dilution
provisions.

         Because of the nature of the dividend, liquidation and voting rights of
the shares of Series A Preferred, the value of the one one-thousandth interest
in a share of Series A Preferred purchasable upon exercise of each Right should
approximate the value of one Common Share.


<TABLE>
<CAPTION>
Item 2.           Exhibits.
                  ---------
<S>                           <C>
                  99.1        Amended and Restated Preferred Shares Rights 
                              Agreement, dated as of June 18, 1996 by and 
                              between Vivus, Inc. and First Interstate Bank of 
                              California, including the Certificate of 
                              Determination, the form of Rights Certificate and 
                              the Summary of Rights attached thereto as 
                              Exhibits A, B and C, respectively.
</TABLE>



                                      -11-

<PAGE>   12
                                    SIGNATURE

         Pursuant to the requirements of Section 12 of the Securities Exchange
Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this Registration Statement to be
signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereto duly authorized.

                                     VIVUS, INC.


Date:  June 24, 1996
                                     By:  //Leland F. Wilson//
                                          -------------------------------------
                                          Leland F. Wilson
                                          President and Chief Executive Officer

<PAGE>   13
                                  EXHIBIT INDEX



<TABLE>
<CAPTION>
                                                                                   Sequential
Exhibit                          Exhibit                                              Page
  No.                                                                                Number
- - -------    --------------------------------------------------------------------    ----------
<S>        <C>                                                                     <C>
99.1       Amended and Restated Preferred Shares Rights Agreement dated as of          14
           June 18, 1996, by and between Vivus, Inc. and First Interstate Bank
           of California, including the Certificate of Designation, the form of
           Rights Certificate and the Summary of Rights attached thereto as
           Exhibits A, B and C, respectively.
</TABLE>






<PAGE>   1
                                                                   Exhibit 99.1















                                   VIVUS, INC.

                                       AND

                       FIRST INTERSTATE BANK OF CALIFORNIA
                                  RIGHTS AGENT













                              AMENDED AND RESTATED
                        PREFERRED SHARES RIGHTS AGREEMENT


                            DATED AS OF JUNE 18, 1996

<PAGE>   2
                                TABLE OF CONTENTS


<TABLE>
<CAPTION>
                                                                                                                   PAGE
                                                                                                                   ----
<S>                                                                                                                <C>
Section 1.  Certain Definitions.................................................................................    -1-

Section 2.  Appointment of Rights Agent.........................................................................    -5-

Section 3.  Issuance of Rights Certificates.....................................................................    -5-

Section 4.  Form of Rights Certificates.........................................................................    -6-

Section 5.  Countersignature and Registration...................................................................    -7-

Section 6.  Transfer, Split Up, Combination and Exchange of Rights Certificates;
            Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Rights Certificates............................................    -8-

Section 7.  Exercise of Rights; Purchase Price; Expiration Date of Rights.......................................    -8-

Section 8.  Cancellation and Destruction of Rights Certificates.................................................   -10-

Section 9.  Reservation and Availability of Preferred Shares....................................................   -10-

Section 10.  Preferred Shares Record Date.......................................................................   -12-

Section 11.  Adjustment of Purchase Price, Number of Shares or Number of Rights.................................   -12-

Section 12.  Certificate of Adjusted Purchase Price or Number of Shares.........................................   -19-

Section 13.  Consolidation, Merger or Sale or Transfer of Assets or Earning Power...............................   -20-

Section 14.  Fractional Rights and Fractional Shares............................................................   -22-

Section 15.  Rights of Action...................................................................................   -23-

Section 16.  Agreement of Rights Holders........................................................................   -23-

Section 17.  Rights Certificate Holder Not Deemed
 a Shareholder.................................................   -24-

Section 18.  Concerning the Rights Agent........................................................................   -24-

Section 19.  Merger or Consolidation or Change of Name of Rights Agent..........................................   -24-

Section 20.  Duties of Rights Agent.............................................................................   -25-
</TABLE>



                                       -i-

<PAGE>   3
                                TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                   (CONTINUED)


<TABLE>
<CAPTION>
                                                                                                                   PAGE
                                                                                                                   ----
<S>                                                                                                                <C>
Section 21.  Change of Rights Agent.............................................................................   -27-

Section 22.  Issuance of New Rights Certificates................................................................   -28-

Section 23.  Redemption.........................................................................................   -28-

Section 24.  Exchange...........................................................................................   -29-

Section 25.  Notice of Certain Events...........................................................................   -31-

Section 26.  Notices............................................................................................   -31-

Section 27.  Supplements and Amendments.........................................................................   -31-

Section 28.  Successors.........................................................................................   -32-

Section 29.  Determinations and Actions by the Board of Directors, etc..........................................   -32-

Section 30.  Benefits of this Agreement.........................................................................   -32-

Section 31.  Severability.......................................................................................   -33-

Section 32.  Governing Law......................................................................................   -33-

Section 33.  Counterparts.......................................................................................   -33-

Section 34.  Descriptive Headings...............................................................................   -33-
</TABLE>



EXHIBITS

Exhibit A    Form of Certificate of Designation

Exhibit B    Form of Rights Certificate

Exhibit C    Summary of Rights


                                      -ii-

<PAGE>   4
             AMENDED AND RESTATED PREFERRED SHARES RIGHTS AGREEMENT


         This Amended and Restated Preferred Shares Rights Agreement (the
"Agreement"), is dated as of June 18, 1996, between Vivus, Inc., a Delaware
corporation (the "Company"), and First Interstate Bank of California (the
"Rights Agent").

         On February 1, 1996 (the "Rights Dividend Declaration Date"), the Board
of Directors of the Company authorized and declared a dividend of one Preferred
Share purchase right (a "Right") for each Common Share (as hereinafter defined)
of the Company outstanding as of the Close of Business (as hereinafter defined)
on February 28, 1996 (the "Record Date"), each Right representing the right to
purchase one one-thousandth of a share of Series A Participating Preferred Stock
(as such number may be adjusted pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement),
having the rights, preferences and privileges set forth in the form of
Certificate of Designation of Rights, Preferences and Privileges of Series A
Participating Preferred Stock attached hereto as Exhibit A, upon the terms and
subject to the conditions herein set forth, and further authorized and directed
the issuance of one Right (as such number may be adjusted pursuant to the
provisions of this Agreement) with respect to each Common Share that shall
become outstanding between the Record Date and the earlier of the Distribution
Date and the Expiration Date (as such terms are hereinafter defined), and in
certain circumstances after the Distribution Date.

         On February 13, 1996, the Company and the Rights Agent entered into the
Preferred Shares Rights Agreement (the "Rights Agreement") which was declared
effective by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission on March 5,
1996.

         The parties hereto wish to amend and restate said Rights Agreement
solely to reflect the Company's reincorporation in the State of Delaware. NOW,
THEREFORE, in consideration of the promises and the mutual agreements herein set
forth, the parties hereby agree as follows:

         Section 1. Certain Definitions. For purposes of this Agreement, the
following terms have the meanings indicated:

                  (a) "Acquiring Person" shall mean any Person who or which,
together with all Affiliates and Associates of such Person, shall be the
Beneficial Owner of 20% or more of the Common Shares then outstanding, but shall
not include the Company, any Subsidiary of the Company or any employee benefit
plan of the Company or of any Subsidiary of the Company, or any entity holding
Common Shares for or pursuant to the terms of any such plan. Notwithstanding the
foregoing, no Person shall be deemed to be an Acquiring Person either (i) as the
result of an acquisition of Common Shares by the Company which, by reducing the
number of shares outstanding, increases the proportionate number of shares
beneficially owned by such Person to 20% or more of the Common Shares of the
Company then outstanding; provided, however, that if a Person shall become the
Beneficial Owner of 20% or more of the Common Shares of the Company then
outstanding by reason of share purchases by the Company and shall, after such
share purchases by the Company, become the Beneficial Owner of any additional
Common Shares of the Company, then such Person shall be deemed to be an
Acquiring Person. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Board of Directors of
the Company determines in good faith that



<PAGE>   5
a Person who would otherwise be an "Acquiring Person", as defined pursuant to
the foregoing provisions of this paragraph (a), has become such inadvertently,
and such Person divests as promptly as practicable a sufficient number of Common
Shares so that such Person would no longer be an "Acquiring Person", as defined
pursuant to the foregoing provisions of this paragraph (a), then such Person
shall not be deemed to be an "Acquiring Person" for any purposes of this
Agreement.

                  (b) "Affiliate" and "Associate" shall have the respective
meanings ascribed to such terms in Rule 12b-2 of the General Rules and
Regulations under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange
Act"), as in effect on the date of this Agreement.

                  (c) A Person shall be deemed the "Beneficial Owner" of and
shall be deemed to "beneficially own" any securities:

                           (i) which such Person or any of such Person's
Affiliates or Associates beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, for purposes
of Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and Rule 13d-3 thereunder (or any
comparable or successor law or regulation);

                           (ii) which such Person or any of such Person's
Affiliates or Associates has (A) the right to acquire (whether such right is
exercisable immediately or only after the passage of time) pursuant to any
agreement, arrangement or understanding (other than customary agreements with
and between underwriters and selling group members with respect to a bona fide
public offering of securities), or upon the exercise of conversion rights,
exchange rights, rights (other than the Rights), warrants or options, or
otherwise; provided, however, that a Person shall not be deemed pursuant to this
Section 1(c)(ii)(A) the Beneficial Owner of, or to beneficially own, (1)
securities tendered pursuant to a tender or exchange offer made by or on behalf
of such Person or any of such Person's Affiliates or Associates until such
tendered securities are accepted for purchase or exchange, or (2) securities
which a Person or any of such Person's Affiliates or Associates may be deemed to
have the right to acquire pursuant to any merger or other acquisition agreement
between the Company and such Person (or one or more of its Affiliates or
Associates) if such agreement has been approved by the Board of Directors of the
Company prior to there being an Acquiring Person; or (B) the right to vote
pursuant to any agreement, arrangement or understanding; provided, however, that
a Person shall not be deemed the Beneficial Owner of, or to beneficially own,
any security under this Section 1(c)(ii)(B) if the agreement, arrangement or
understanding to vote such security (1) arises solely from a revocable proxy or
consent given to such Person in response to a public proxy or consent
solicitation made pursuant to, and in accordance with, the applicable rules and
regulations of the Exchange Act and (2) is not also then reportable on Schedule
13D under the Exchange Act (or any comparable or successor report); or

                           (iii) which are beneficially owned, directly or
indirectly, by any other Person (or any Affiliate or Associate thereof) with
which such Person or any of such Person's Affiliates or Associates has any
agreement, arrangement or understanding, whether or not in writing (other than
customary agreements with and between underwriters and selling group members
with respect to a bona fide public offering of securities) for the purpose of
acquiring, holding, voting (except to the extent contemplated by the proviso to
Section 1(c)(ii)(B)) or disposing of any securities of the Company; provided,
however, that in no case shall an officer or director of the Company be deemed
(x) the


                                       -2-

<PAGE>   6
Beneficial Owner of any securities beneficially owned by another officer or
director of the Company solely by reason of actions undertaken by such persons
in their capacity as officers or directors of the Company or (y) the Beneficial
Owner of securities held of record by the trustee of any employee benefit plan
of the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company for the benefit of any employee
of the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company, other than the officer or
director, by reason of any influence that such officer or director may have over
the voting of the securities held in the plan.

                  (d) "Business Day" shall mean any day other than a Saturday,
Sunday or a day on which banking institutions in California are authorized or
obligated by law or executive order to close.

                  (e) "Close of Business" on any given date shall mean 5:00
P.M., California time, on such date; provided, however, that if such date is not
a Business Day it shall mean 5:00 P.M., California time, on the next succeeding
Business Day.

                  (f) "Common Shares" when used with reference to the Company
shall mean the shares of Common Stock of the Company, no par value. "Common
Shares" when used with reference to any Person other than the Company shall mean
the capital stock (or equity interest) with the greatest voting power of such
other Person or, if such other Person is a Subsidiary of another Person, the
Person or Persons which ultimately control such first-mentioned Person.

                  (g) "Continuing Director" shall mean (i) any member of the
Board of Directors of the Company, while a member of the Board, who is not an
Acquiring Person, or an Affiliate or Associate of an Acquiring Person, or a
representative of an Acquiring Person or of any such Affiliate or Associate, and
who was a member of the Board prior to the date of this Agreement, or (ii) any
Person who subsequently becomes a member of the Board, while a member of the
Board, who is not an Acquiring Person, or an Affiliate or Associate of an
Acquiring Person, or a representative of an Acquiring Person or of any such
Affiliate or Associate, if such Person's nomination for election or election to
the Board is recommended or approved by a majority of the Continuing Directors.

                  (h) "Distribution Date" shall mean the earlier of (i) the
Close of Business on the tenth day (or such later date as may be determined by
action of a majority of Continuing Directors then in office) after the Shares
Acquisition Date (or, if the tenth day after the Shares Acquisition Date occurs
before the Record Date, the Close of Business on the Record Date) or (ii) the
Close of Business on the tenth day (or such later date as may be determined by
action of a majority of Continuing Directors then in office) after the date that
a tender or exchange offer by any Person (other than the Company, any Subsidiary
of the Company, any employee benefit plan of the Company or of any Subsidiary of
the Company, or any Person or entity organized, appointed or established by the
Company for or pursuant to the terms of any such plan) is first published or
sent or given within the meaning of Rule 14d-2(a) of the General Rules and
Regulations under the Exchange Act, if, assuming the successful consummation
thereof, such Person would be the Beneficial Owner of 20% or more of the shares
of Common Stock then outstanding.


                                       -3-

<PAGE>   7
                  (i) "Equivalent Shares" shall mean Preferred Shares and any
other class or series of capital stock of the Company which is entitled to
participate in dividends and other distributions, including distributions upon
the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company, on a proportional
basis with the Common Shares. In calculating the number of any class or series
of Equivalent Shares for purposes of Section 11 of this Rights Agreement, the
number of shares, or fractions of a share, of such class or series of capital
stock that is entitled to the same dividend or distribution as a whole Common
Share shall be deemed to be one share.

                  (j) "Expiration Date" shall mean the earliest of (i) the Close
of Business on the Final Expiration Date, (ii) the Redemption Date, (iii) the
time at which the Board of Directors orders the exchange of the Rights as
provided in Section 24 hereof or (iv) the consummation of a transaction
contemplated by Section 13(d) hereof.

                  (k) "Final Expiration Date" shall mean February 12, 2006.

                  (l) "Permitted Offer" shall mean a tender offer for all
outstanding Common Shares made in the manner prescribed by Section 14(d) of the
Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder; provided,
however, that such tender offer occurs at a time when Continuing Directors are
in office and a majority of the Continuing Directors then in office has
determined that the offer is both adequate and otherwise in the best interests
of the Company and its shareholders (taking into account all factors that such
Continuing Directors deem relevant).

                  (m) "Person" shall mean any individual, firm, corporation or
other entity, and shall include any successor (by merger or otherwise) of such
entity.

                  (n) "Preferred Shares" shall mean shares of Series A
Participating Preferred Stock of the Company.

                  (o) "Purchase Price" shall have the meaning set forth in
Section 4(a) hereof.

                  (p) "Record Date" shall have the meaning set forth in the
recitals at the beginning of this Agreement.

                  (q) "Redemption Date" shall mean the time at which the Board
of Directors of the Company orders redemption of the Rights as provided in
Section 23 hereof.

                  (r) "Redemption Price" shall have the meaning set forth in
Section 23(a) hereof.

                  (s) "Rights Dividend Declaration Date" shall have the meaning
set forth in the recitals at the beginning of this Agreement.

                  (t) "Section 13 Event" shall mean any event described in
clause (i), (ii) or (iii) of Section 13(a) hereof.


                                       -4-

<PAGE>   8
                  (u) "Shares Acquisition Date" shall mean the first date of
public announcement (which, for purposes of this definition, shall include,
without limitation, a report filed pursuant to Section 13(d) under the Exchange
Act) by the Company or an Acquiring Person that an Acquiring Person has become
such; provided that, if such person is determined not to have become an
Acquiring Person pursuant to Section 1(a)(ii) hereof, then no Shares Acquisition
Date shall be deemed to have occurred.

                  (v) "Subsidiary" of any Person shall mean any corporation or
other entity of which an amount of voting securities sufficient to elect a
majority of the directors or Persons having similar authority of such
corporation or other entity is beneficially owned, directly or indirectly, by
such Person, or any corporation or other entity otherwise controlled by such
Person.

                  (w) "Total Exercise Price" shall have the meaning set forth in
Section 4(a) hereof.

                  (x) "Trading Day" shall have the meaning set forth in Section
11(d) hereof.

                  (y) A "Triggering Event" shall be deemed to have occurred upon
any Person (other than the Company, any Subsidiary of the Company, any employee
benefit plan of the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company, or any entity
holding Common Shares for or pursuant to the terms of any such plan), together
with all Affiliates and Associates of such Person, becoming an Acquiring Person.

         Section 2. Appointment of Rights Agent. The Company hereby appoints the
Rights Agent to act as agent for the Company and the holders of the Rights (who,
in accordance with Section 3 hereof, shall prior to the Distribution Date also
be the holders of the Common Shares) in accordance with the terms and conditions
hereof, and the Rights Agent hereby accepts such appointment. The Company may
from time to time appoint such co-Rights Agents as it may deem necessary or
desirable.

         Section 3. Issuance of Rights Certificates.

                  (a) Until the Distribution Date, (i) the Rights will be
evidenced (subject to the provisions of Sections 3(b) and 3(c) hereof) by the
certificates for Common Shares registered in the names of the holders thereof
(which certificates shall also be deemed to be Rights Certificates) and not by
separate Rights Certificates and (ii) the right to receive Rights Certificates
will be transferable only in connection with the transfer of Common Shares.
Until the earlier of the Distribution Date or the Expiration Date, the surrender
for transfer of such certificates for Common Shares shall also constitute the
surrender for transfer of the Rights associated with the Common Shares
represented thereby. As soon as practicable after the Distribution Date, the
Company will prepare and execute, the Rights Agent will countersign, and the
Company will send or cause to be sent (and the Rights Agent will, if requested,
send) by first-class, postage-prepaid mail, to each record holder of Common
Shares as of the close of business on the Distribution Date, at the address of
such holder shown on the records of the Company, a Rights Certificate, in
substantially the form of Exhibit B hereto (a "Rights Certificate"), evidencing
one Right for each Common Share so held, subject to adjustment as provided
herein. In the event that an adjustment in the number of Rights per Common Share
has been made pursuant to Section 11(a)(i), Section 11(i) or Section 11(p)
hereof, then at the time of distribution of the Rights Certificates, the Company
shall make the necessary and appropriate rounding adjustments (in accordance
with


                                       -5-

<PAGE>   9
Section 14(a) hereof) so that Rights Certificates representing only whole
numbers of Rights are distributed and cash is paid in lieu of any fractional
Rights. As of the Distribution Date, the Rights will be evidenced solely by such
Rights Certificates and may be transferred by the transfer of the Rights
Certificates as permitted hereby, separately and apart from any transfer of one
or more Common Shares, and the holders of such Rights Certificates as listed in
the records of the Company or any transfer agent or registrar for the Rights
shall be the record holders thereof.

                  (b) On the Record Date or as soon as practicable thereafter,
the Company will send a copy of a Summary of Rights in substantially the form of
Exhibit C hereto (the "Summary of Rights"), by first-class, postage-prepaid
mail, to each record holder of Common Shares as of the close of business on the
Record Date, at the address of such holder shown on the records of the Company.

                  (c) Unless the Board of Directors by resolution adopted at or
before the time of the issuance (including pursuant to the exercise of rights
under the Company's benefit plans) of any Common Shares specifies to the
contrary, Rights shall be issued in respect of all Common Shares that are issued
after the Record Date but prior to the earlier of the Distribution Date or the
Expiration Date or, in certain circumstances provided in Section 22 hereof,
after the Distribution Date. Certificates representing such Common Shares shall
also be deemed to be certificates for Rights, and shall bear the following
legend:

         This certificate also evidences and entitles the holder hereof to
         certain rights as set forth in a Rights Agreement between Vivus, Inc.
         and the First Interstate Bank of California as the Rights Agent, dated
         as of February 13, 1996 (the "Rights Agreement"), the terms of which
         are hereby incorporated herein by reference and a copy of which is on
         file at the principal executive offices of Vivus, Inc. Under certain
         circumstances, as set forth in the Rights Agreement, such Rights will
         be evidenced by separate certificates and will no longer be evidenced
         by this certificate. Vivus, Inc. will mail to the holder of this
         certificate a copy of the Rights Agreement without charge after receipt
         of a written request therefor. Under certain circumstances set forth in
         the Rights Agreement, Rights issued to, or held by, any Person who is,
         was or becomes an Acquiring Person or any Affiliate or Associate
         thereof (as such terms are defined in the Rights Agreement), whether
         currently held by or on behalf of such Person or by any subsequent
         holder, may become null and void.

With respect to such certificates containing the foregoing legend, until the
earlier of (i) the Distribution Date or (ii) the Expiration Date, the Rights
associated with the Common Shares represented by such certificates shall be
evidenced by such certificates alone, and the surrender for transfer of any such
certificate shall also constitute the transfer of the Rights associated with the
Common Shares represented thereby. In the event that the Company purchases or
acquires any Common Shares after the Record Date but prior to the Distribution
Date, any Rights associated with such Common Shares shall be deemed canceled and
retired so that the Company shall not be entitled to exercise any Rights
associated with the Common Shares which are no longer outstanding.


                                       -6-

<PAGE>   10
         Section 4. Form of Rights Certificates.

                  (a) The Rights Certificates (and the forms of election to
purchase Common Shares and of assignment to be printed on the reverse thereof)
shall be substantially in the form of Exhibit A hereto and may have such marks
of identification or designation and such legends, summaries or endorsements
printed thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent
with the provisions of this Agreement, or as may be required to comply with any
applicable law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any
rule or regulation of any stock exchange on which the Rights may from time to
time be listed, or to conform to usage. Subject to the provisions of Section 11
and Section 22 hereof, the Rights Certificates, whenever distributed, shall be
dated as of the Record Date (or in the case of Rights issued with respect to
Common Shares issued by the Company after the Record Date, as of the date of
issuance of such Common Shares) and on their face shall entitle the holders
thereof to purchase such number of one-thousandths of a Preferred Share as shall
be set forth therein at the price set forth therein (such exercise price per one
one-thousandth of a Preferred Share being hereinafter referred to as the
"Purchase Price" and the aggregate exercise price of all Preferred Shares
issuable upon exercise of one Right being hereinafter referred to as the "Total
Exercise Price"), but the number and type of securities purchasable upon the
exercise of each Right and the Purchase Price shall be subject to adjustment as
provided herein.

                  (b) Any Rights Certificate issued pursuant to Section 3(a) or
Section 22 hereof that represents Rights beneficially owned by: (i) an Acquiring
Person or any Associate or Affiliate of an Acquiring Person, (ii) a transferee
of an Acquiring Person (or of any such Associate or Affiliate) who becomes a
transferee after the Acquiring Person becomes such or (iii) a transferee of an
Acquiring Person (or of any such Associate or Affiliate) who becomes a
transferee prior to or concurrently with the Acquiring Person becoming such and
receives such Rights pursuant to either (A) a transfer (whether or not for
consideration) from the Acquiring Person to holders of equity interests in such
Acquiring Person or to any Person with whom such Acquiring Person has any
continuing agreement, arrangement or understanding regarding the transferred
Rights or (B) a transfer which the Board of Directors of the Company has
determined is part of a plan, arrangement or understanding which has as a
primary purpose or effect avoidance of Section 7(e) hereof, and any Rights
Certificate issued pursuant to Section 6 or Section 11 hereof upon transfer,
exchange, replacement or adjustment of any other Rights Certificate referred to
in this sentence, shall contain (to the extent feasible) the following legend:

         The Rights represented by this Rights Certificate are or were
         beneficially owned by a Person who was or became an Acquiring Person or
         an Affiliate or Associate of an Acquiring Person (as such terms are
         defined in the Rights Agreement). Accordingly, this Rights Certificate
         and the Rights represented hereby may become null and void in the
         circumstances specified in Section 7(e) of the Rights Agreement.

         Section 5. Countersignature and Registration.

                  (a) The Rights Certificates shall be executed on behalf of the
Company by its Chairman of the Board, its Chief Executive Officer, its President
or any Vice President, either manually or by facsimile signature, and by the
Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company, either manually


                                       -7-

<PAGE>   11
or by facsimile signature, and shall have affixed thereto the Company's seal (if
any) or a facsimile thereof. The Rights Certificates shall be manually
countersigned by the Rights Agent and shall not be valid for any purpose unless
countersigned. In case any officer of the Company who shall have signed any of
the Rights Certificates shall cease to be such officer of the Company before
countersignature by the Rights Agent and issuance and delivery by the Company,
such Rights Certificates, nevertheless, may be countersigned by the Rights Agent
and issued and delivered by the Company with the same force and effect as though
the person who signed such Rights Certificates had not ceased to be such officer
of the Company; and any Rights Certificate may be signed on behalf of the
Company by any person who, at the actual date of the execution of such Rights
Certificate, shall be a proper officer of the Company to sign such Rights
Certificate, although at the date of the execution of this Rights Agreement any
such person was not such an officer.

                  (b) Following the Distribution Date, the Rights Agent will
keep or cause to be kept, at its office designated for such purposes, books for
registration and transfer of the Rights Certificates issued hereunder. Such
books shall show the names and addresses of the respective holders of the Rights
Certificates, the number of Rights evidenced on its face by each of the Rights
Certificates and the date of each of the Rights Certificates.

         Section 6. Transfer, Split Up, Combination and Exchange of Rights
Certificates; Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Rights Certificates.

                  (a) Subject to the provisions of Sections 7(e), 14 and 24
hereof, at any time after the Close of Business on the Distribution Date, and at
or prior to the Close of Business on the Expiration Date, any Rights Certificate
or Rights Certificates may be transferred, split up, combined or exchanged for
another Rights Certificate or Rights Certificates, entitling the registered
holder to purchase a like number of one-thousandths of a Preferred Share (or,
following a Triggering Event, other securities, cash or other assets, as the
case may be) as the Rights Certificate or Rights Certificates surrendered then
entitled such holder to purchase. Any registered holder desiring to transfer,
split up, combine or exchange any Rights Certificate or Rights Certificates
shall make such request in writing delivered to the Rights Agent, and shall
surrender the Rights Certificate or Rights Certificates to be transferred, split
up, combined or exchanged at the office of the Rights Agent designated for such
purpose. Neither the Rights Agent nor the Company shall be obligated to take any
action whatsoever with respect to the transfer of any such surrendered Rights
Certificate until the registered holder shall have completed and signed the
certificate contained in the form of assignment on the reverse side of such
Rights Certificate and shall have provided such additional evidence of the
identity of the Beneficial Owner (or former Beneficial Owner) or Affiliates or
Associates thereof as the Company shall reasonably request. Thereupon the Rights
Agent shall, subject to Sections 7(e), 14 and 24 hereof, countersign and deliver
to the person entitled thereto a Rights Certificate or Rights Certificates, as
the case may be, as so requested. The Company may require payment of a sum
sufficient to cover any tax or governmental charge that may be imposed in
connection with any transfer, split up, combination or exchange of Rights
Certificates.

                  (b) Upon receipt by the Company and the Rights Agent of
evidence reasonably satisfactory to them of the loss, theft, destruction or
mutilation of a Rights Certificate, and, in case of loss, theft or destruction,
of indemnity or security reasonably satisfactory to them, and, at the Company's


                                       -8-

<PAGE>   12
request, reimbursement to the Company and the Rights Agent of all reasonable
expenses incidental thereto, and upon surrender to the Rights Agent and
cancellation of the Rights Certificate if mutilated, the Company will make and
deliver a new Rights Certificate of like tenor to the Rights Agent for delivery
to the registered holder in lieu of the Rights Certificate so lost, stolen,
destroyed or mutilated.

         Section 7. Exercise of Rights; Purchase Price; Expiration Date of
Rights.

                  (a) Subject to Sections 7(e), 23(b) and 24(b) hereof, the
registered holder of any Rights Certificate may exercise the Rights evidenced
thereby (except as otherwise provided herein) in whole or in part at any time
after the Distribution Date upon surrender of the Rights Certificate, with the
form of election to purchase on the reverse side thereof duly executed, to the
Rights Agent at the office of the Rights Agent designated for such purpose,
together with payment of the Purchase Price for each one-thousandth of a
Preferred Share as to which the Rights are exercised, at or prior to the
Expiration Date.

                  (b) The Purchase Price for each one-thousandth of a Preferred
Share issuable pursuant to the exercise of a Right shall initially be One
Hundred Dollars ($100.00), shall be subject to adjustment from time to time as
provided in Sections 11 and 13 hereof and shall be payable in lawful money of
the United States of America in accordance with paragraph (c) below.

                  (c) Upon receipt of a Rights Certificate representing
exercisable Rights, with the form of election to purchase duly executed,
accompanied by payment of the Purchase Price for the number of one-thousandths
of a Preferred Share (or other securities or property, as the case may be) to be
purchased and an amount equal to any applicable transfer tax required to be paid
by the holder of such Rights Certificate in accordance with Section 9 hereof in
cash, or by certified check or cashier's check payable to the order of the
Company, the Rights Agent shall, subject to Section 20(k) hereof, thereupon
promptly (i) (A) requisition from any transfer agent of the Preferred Shares (or
make available, if the Rights Agent is the transfer agent for the Preferred
Shares) a certificate or certificates for the number of one-thousandths of a
Preferred Share to be purchased and the Company hereby irrevocably authorizes
its transfer agent to comply with all such requests or (B) if the Company shall
have elected to deposit the total number of one-thousandths of a Preferred Share
issuable upon exercise of the Rights hereunder with a depositary agent,
requisition from the depositary agent of depositary receipts representing such
number of one-thousandths of a Preferred Share as are to be purchased (in which
case certificates for the Preferred Shares represented by such receipts shall be
deposited by the transfer agent with the depositary agent) and the Company
hereby directs the depositary agent to comply with such request, (ii) when
appropriate, requisition from the Company the amount of cash to be paid in lieu
of issuance of fractional shares in accordance with Section 14 hereof, (iii)
after receipt of such certificates or depositary receipts, cause the same to be
delivered to or upon the order of the registered holder of such Rights
Certificate, registered in such name or names as may be designated by such
holder and (iv) when appropriate, after receipt thereof, deliver such cash to or
upon the order of the registered holder of such Rights Certificate. The payment
of the Purchase Price (as such amount may be reduced (including to zero)
pursuant to Section 11(a)(iv) hereof) may be made in cash or by certified bank
check or bank draft payable to the order of the Company. In the event that the
Company is obligated to issue other securities of the Company, pay cash and/or
distribute other property pursuant to Section 11(a) hereof, the Company will


                                       -9-

<PAGE>   13
make all arrangements necessary so that such other securities, cash and/or other
property are available for distribution by the Rights Agent, if and when
appropriate.

                  (d) In case the registered holder of any Rights Certificate
shall exercise less than all the Rights evidenced thereby, a new Rights
Certificate evidencing Rights equivalent to the Rights remaining unexercised
shall be issued by the Rights Agent to the registered holder of such Rights
Certificate or to his or her duly authorized assigns, subject to the provisions
of Section 14 hereof.

                  (e) Notwithstanding anything in this Agreement to the
contrary, from and after the first occurrence of a Triggering Event or a Section
13 Event, any Rights beneficially owned by (i) an Acquiring Person or an
Associate or Affiliate of an Acquiring Person, (ii) a transferee of an Acquiring
Person (or of any such Associate or Affiliate) who becomes a transferee after
the Acquiring Person becomes such (a "Post Transferee"), (iii) a transferee of
an Acquiring Person (or of any such Associate or Affiliate) who becomes a
transferee prior to or concurrently with the Acquiring Person becoming such and
receives such Rights pursuant to either (A) a transfer (whether or not for
consideration) from the Acquiring Person to holders of equity interests in such
Acquiring Person or to any Person with whom the Acquiring Person has any
continuing agreement, arrangement or understanding regarding the transferred
Rights or (B) a transfer which the Board of Directors of the Company has
determined is part of a plan, arrangement or understanding which has as a
primary purpose or effect the avoidance of this Section 7(e) (a "Prior
Transferee") or (iv) any subsequent transferee receiving transferred Rights from
a Post Transferee or a Prior Transferee, either directly or through one or more
intermediate transferees, shall become null and void without any further action
and no holder of such Rights shall have any rights whatsoever with respect to
such Rights, whether under any provision of this Agreement or otherwise. The
Company shall use all reasonable efforts to insure that the provisions of this
Section 7(e) and Section 4(b) hereof are complied with, but shall have no
liability to any holder of Rights Certificates or to any other Person as a
result of its failure to make any determinations with respect to an Acquiring
Person or any of such Acquiring Person's Affiliates, Associates or transferees
hereunder.

                  (f) Notwithstanding anything in this Agreement to the
contrary, neither the Rights Agent nor the Company shall be obligated to
undertake any action with respect to a registered holder upon the occurrence of
any purported exercise as set forth in this Section 7 unless such registered
holder shall have (i) completed and signed the certificate contained in the form
of election to purchase set forth on the reverse side of the Rights Certificate
surrendered for such exercise and (ii) provided such additional evidence of the
identity of the Beneficial Owner (or former Beneficial Owner) or Affiliates or
Associates thereof as the Company shall reasonably request.

         Section 8. Cancellation and Destruction of Rights Certificates. All
Rights Certificates surrendered for the purpose of exercise, transfer, split up,
combination or exchange shall, if surrendered to the Company or to any of its
agents, be delivered to the Rights Agent for cancellation or in canceled form,
or, if surrendered to the Rights Agent, shall be canceled by it, and no Rights
Certificates shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly permitted by
any of the provisions of this Agreement. The Company shall deliver to the Rights
Agent for cancellation and retirement, and the Rights Agent shall so cancel and
retire, any other Rights Certificate purchased or acquired by the Company
otherwise than upon the exercise thereof. The Rights Agent shall deliver all
canceled Rights Certificates to the


                                      -10-

<PAGE>   14
Company, or shall, at the written request of the Company, destroy such canceled
Rights Certificates, and in such case shall deliver a certificate of destruction
thereof to the Company.

         Section 9. Reservation and Availability of Preferred Shares.

                  (a) The Company covenants and agrees that it will use its best
efforts to cause to be reserved and kept available out of and to the extent of
its authorized and unissued shares of Preferred Stock not reserved for another
purpose (and, following the occurrence of a Triggering Event, out of its
authorized and unissued shares of Common Stock and/or other securities), the
number of Preferred Shares (and, following the occurrence of the Triggering
Event, Common Stock and/or other securities) that will be sufficient to permit
the exercise in full of all outstanding Rights.

                  (b) If the Company shall hereafter list any of its Preferred
Shares on a national securities exchange, then so long as the Preferred Shares
(and, following the occurrence of a Triggering Event, Common Shares and/or other
securities) issuable and deliverable upon exercise of the Rights may be listed
on such exchange, the Company shall use its best efforts to cause, from and
after such time as the Rights become exercisable (but only to the extent that it
is reasonably likely that the Rights will be exercised), all shares reserved for
such issuance to be listed on such exchange upon official notice of issuance
upon such exercise.

                  (c) The Company shall use its best efforts to (i) file, as
soon as practicable following the earliest date after the first occurrence of a
Triggering Event in which the consideration to be delivered by the Company upon
exercise of the Rights has been determined in accordance with Section 11(a)(iv)
hereof, or as soon as is required by law following the Distribution Date, as the
case may be, a registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933, as
amended (the "Securities Act"), with respect to the securities purchasable upon
exercise of the Rights on an appropriate form, (ii) cause such registration
statement to become effective as soon as practicable after such filing and (iii)
cause such registration statement to remain effective (with a prospectus at all
times meeting the requirements of the Securities Act) until the earlier of (A)
the date as of which the Rights are no longer exercisable for such securities
and (B) the date of expiration of the Rights. The Company may temporarily
suspend, for a period not to exceed ninety (90) days after the date set forth in
clause (i) of the first sentence of this Section 9(c), the exercisability of the
Rights in order to prepare and file such registration statement and permit it to
become effective. Upon any such suspension, the Company shall issue a public
announcement stating, and notify the Rights Agent, that the exercisability of
the Rights has been temporarily suspended, as well as a public announcement and
notification to the Rights Agent at such time as the suspension is no longer in
effect. The Company will also take such action as may be appropriate under, or
to ensure compliance with, the securities or "blue sky" laws of the various
states in connection with the exercisability of the Rights. Notwithstanding any
provision of this Agreement to the contrary, the Rights shall not be exercisable
in any jurisdiction, unless the requisite qualification in such jurisdiction
shall have been obtained, or an exemption therefrom shall be available, and
until a registration statement has been declared effective.

                  (d) The Company covenants and agrees that it will take all
such action as may be necessary to ensure that all Preferred Shares delivered
upon exercise of Rights shall, at the time of


                                      -11-

<PAGE>   15
delivery of the certificates for such Preferred Shares (subject to payment of
the Purchase Price), be duly and validly authorized and issued and fully paid
and nonassessable shares.

                  (e) The Company further covenants and agrees that it will pay
when due and payable any and all federal and state transfer taxes and charges
which may be payable in respect of the original issuance or delivery of the
Rights Certificates or of any Preferred Shares upon the exercise of Rights. The
Company shall not, however, be required to pay any transfer tax which may be
payable in respect of any transfer or delivery of Rights Certificates to a
person other than, or the issuance or delivery of certificates or depositary
receipts for the Preferred Shares in a name other than that of, the registered
holder of the Rights Certificate evidencing Rights surrendered for exercise or
to issue or to deliver any certificates or depositary receipts for Preferred
Shares upon the exercise of any Rights until any such tax shall have been paid
(any such tax being payable by the holder of such Rights Certificate at the time
of surrender) or until it has been established to the Company's satisfaction
that no such tax is due.

         Section 10. Preferred Shares Record Date. Each person in whose name any
certificate for a number of one-thousandths of a Preferred Share is issued upon
the exercise of Rights shall for all purposes be deemed to have become the
holder of record of Preferred Shares represented thereby on, and such
certificate shall be dated, the date upon which the Rights Certificate
evidencing such Rights was duly surrendered and payment of the Purchase Price
multiplied by the number of one-thousandths of a Preferred Share with respect to
which the Rights have been exercised (and any applicable transfer taxes) was
made; provided, however, that if the date of such surrender and payment is a
date upon which the Preferred Shares transfer books of the Company are closed,
such person shall be deemed to have become the record holder of such shares on,
and such certificate shall be dated, the next succeeding Business Day on which
the Preferred Shares transfer books of the Company are open. Prior to the
exercise of the Rights evidenced thereby, the holder of a Rights Certificate
shall not be entitled to any rights of a holder of Preferred Shares for which
the Rights shall be exercisable, including, without limitation, the right to
vote, to receive dividends or other distributions or to exercise any preemptive
rights, and shall not be entitled to receive any notice of any proceedings of
the Company, except as provided herein.

         Section 11. Adjustment of Purchase Price, Number of Shares or Number of
Rights. The Purchase Price, the number and kind of shares or other property
covered by each Right and the number of Rights outstanding are subject to
adjustment from time to time as provided in this Section 11.

                  (a) (i) In the event the Company shall at any time after the
date of this Agreement (A) declare a dividend on the Common Shares payable in
Common Shares, (B) subdivide the outstanding Common Shares, (C) combine the
outstanding Common Shares (by reverse stock split or otherwise) into a smaller
number of Common Shares, or (D) issue any shares of its capital stock in a
reclassification of the Common Shares (including any such reclassification in
connection with a consolidation or merger in which the Company is the continuing
or surviving corporation), then, in each such event, except as otherwise
provided in this Section 11(a) and Section 7(e) hereof: (1) each of the Rights
outstanding at the time of the record date for such dividend or the effective
date of such subdivision, combination or reclassification shall be
proportionately adjusted to that number of Rights (calculated to the nearest one
ten-thousandth (1/10,000) of a Right) equal to a fraction (the "Exchange
Ratio"), the numerator of which shall be the total number of Common Shares or
shares of capital stock issued in such reclassification of


                                      -12-

<PAGE>   16
the Common Shares outstanding immediately following such time and the
denominator of which shall be the total number of Common Shares outstanding
immediately prior to such time, and the number of Rights that shall thereafter
be issued with respect to each Common Share or share of such other capital stock
that shall become outstanding thereafter prior to the Distribution Date shall be
equal to the total number of outstanding Rights immediately after such event (as
adjusted pursuant to this clause (1)) divided by the total number of outstanding
Common Shares or shares of such other capital stock immediately after such event
(subject to further adjustment pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement);
(2) the Purchase Price in effect at the time of the record date for such
dividend or of the effective date of such subdivision, combination or
reclassification shall be adjusted so that the Purchase Price thereafter shall
equal the result obtained by dividing the Purchase Price in effect immediately
prior to such time by the Exchange Ratio; provided, however, that in no event
shall the consideration to be paid upon the exercise of one Right be less than
the aggregate par value of the shares of capital stock of the Company issuable
upon exercise of such Right; and (3) the number of Common Shares or shares of
such other capital stock issuable upon the exercise of each Right shall remain
unchanged immediately after such event, but, in the event of a reclassification,
the kind of shares issuable upon the exercise of each Right immediately after
such reclassification shall be adjusted to be the kind of shares of such other
capital stock issued in such reclassification, rather than Common Shares. If an
event occurs which would require an adjustment under both this Section 11(a)(i)
and Section 11(a)(ii) hereof, the adjustment provided for in this Section
11(a)(i) shall be in addition to, and shall be made prior to, any adjustment
required pursuant to Section 11(a)(ii) hereof.

                           (ii) Subject to Section 24 of this Agreement, in the
event a Triggering Event shall have occurred, then promptly following such
Triggering Event, proper provision shall be made so that each holder of a Right,
except as provided in Section 7(e) hereof, shall thereafter have the right to
receive for each Right, upon exercise thereof in accordance with the terms of
this Agreement and payment of the then-current Total Exercise Price, in lieu of
a number of one-thousandths of a Preferred Share, such number of Common Shares
of the Company as shall equal the result obtained by multiplying the
then-current Purchase Price by the then number of one-thousandths of a Preferred
Share for which a Right was exercisable (or would have been exercisable if the
Distribution Date had occurred) immediately prior to the first occurrence of a
Triggering Event, and dividing that product by 50% of the current per share
market price (determined pursuant to Section 11(d) hereof) for Common Shares on
the date of occurrence of the Triggering Event (such number of shares being
hereinafter referred to as the "Adjustment Shares").

                           (iii) The right to buy Common Shares of the Company
pursuant to Section 11(a)(ii) hereof shall not arise as a result of any Person
becoming an Acquiring Person through an acquisition of Common Shares pursuant to
a Permitted Offer.

                           (iv) In lieu of issuing Common Shares in accordance
with Section 11(a)(ii) hereof, the Company may, if the Board of Directors
determines that such action is necessary or appropriate and not contrary to the
interest of holders of Rights (and, in the event that the number of Common
Shares which are authorized by the Company's Articles of Incorporation but not
outstanding or reserved for issuance for purposes other than upon exercise of
the Rights are not sufficient to permit the exercise in full of the Rights, or
if any necessary regulatory approval for such issuance has not been


                                      -13-

<PAGE>   17
obtained by the Company, the Company shall): (A) determine the excess of (1) the
value of the Common Shares issuable upon the exercise of a Right (the "Current
Value") over (2) the Purchase Price (such excess, the "Spread") and (B) with
respect to each Right, make adequate provision to substitute for such Common
Shares, upon exercise of the Rights, (1) cash, (2) a reduction in the Purchase
Price, (3) other equity securities of the Company (including, without
limitation, shares or units of shares of any series of preferred stock which the
Board of Directors of the Company has deemed to have the same value as Common
Shares (such shares or units of shares of preferred stock are herein called
"common stock equivalents")), except to the extent that the Company has not
obtained any necessary shareholder or regulatory approval for such issuance, (4)
debt securities of the Company, except to the extent that the Company has not
obtained any necessary shareholder or regulatory approval for such issuance, (5)
other assets or (6) any combination of the foregoing, having an aggregate value
equal to the Current Value, where such aggregate value has been determined by
the Board of Directors of the Company based upon the advice of a nationally
recognized investment banking firm selected by the Board of Directors of the
Company; provided, however, if the Company shall not have made adequate
provision to deliver value pursuant to clause (B) above within thirty (30) days
following the later of (x) the first occurrence of a Triggering Event and (y)
the date on which the Company's right of redemption pursuant to Section 23(a)
expires (the later of (x) and (y) being referred to herein as the "Section
11(a)(ii) Trigger Date"), then the Company shall be obligated to deliver, upon
the surrender for exercise of a Right and without requiring payment of the
Purchase Price, Common Shares (to the extent available), except to the extent
that the Company has not obtained any necessary shareholder or regulatory
approval for such issuance, and then, if necessary, cash, which shares and/or
cash have an aggregate value equal to the Spread. If the Board of Directors of
the Company shall determine in good faith that it is likely that sufficient
additional Common Shares could be authorized for issuance upon exercise in full
of the Rights or that any necessary regulatory approval for such issuance will
be obtained, the thirty (30) day period set forth above may be extended to the
extent necessary, but not more than ninety (90) days after the Section 11(a)(ii)
Trigger Date, in order that the Company may seek shareholder approval for the
authorization of such additional shares or take action to obtain such regulatory
approval (such period, as it may be extended, the "Substitution Period"). To the
extent that the Company determines that some action need be taken pursuant to
the first and/or second sentences of this Section 11(a)(iv), the Company (x)
shall provide, subject to Section 7(e) hereof, that such action shall apply
uniformly to all outstanding Rights and (y) may suspend the exercisability of
the Rights until the expiration of the Substitution Period in order to seek any
authorization of additional shares, to take any action to obtain any required
regulatory approval and/or to decide the appropriate form of distribution to be
made pursuant to such first sentence and to determine the value thereof. In the
event of any such suspension, the Company shall issue a public announcement
stating that the exercisability of the Rights has been temporarily suspended, as
well as a public announcement at such time as the suspension is no longer in
effect. For purposes of this Section 11(a)(iv), the value of the Common Shares
shall be the current per share market price (as determined pursuant to Section
11(d) hereof) of the Common Shares on the Section 11(a)(ii) Trigger Date and the
value of any "common stock equivalent" shall be deemed to have the same value as
the Common Shares on such date.

                  (b) In case the Company shall, at any time after the date of
this Agreement, fix a record date for the issuance of rights, options or
warrants to all holders of Common Shares or of any class or series of Equivalent
Shares entitling such holders (for a period expiring within forty-five (45)


                                      -14-

<PAGE>   18
calendar days after such record date) to subscribe for or purchase Common Shares
or Equivalent Shares or securities convertible into Common Shares or Equivalent
Shares at a price per share (or having a conversion price per share, if a
security convertible into Common Shares or Equivalent Shares) less than the then
current per share market price of the Common Shares or Equivalent Shares (as
defined in Section 11(d)) on such record date, then, in each such case, the
Purchase Price to be in effect after such record date shall be determined by
multiplying the Purchase Price in effect immediately prior to such record date
by a fraction, the numerator of which shall be the number of Common Shares and
Equivalent Shares (if any) outstanding on such record date, plus the number of
Common Shares or Equivalent Shares, as the case may be, which the aggregate
offering price of the total number of Common Shares or Equivalent Shares, as the
case may be, so to be offered (and/or the aggregate initial conversion price of
the convertible securities so to be offered) would purchase at such current
market price, and the denominator of which shall be the number of Common Shares
and Equivalent Shares (if any) outstanding on such record date, plus the number
of additional Common Shares or Equivalent Shares, as the case may be, to be
offered for subscription or purchase (or into which the convertible securities
so to be offered are initially convertible). In case such subscription price may
be paid in a consideration part or all of which shall be in a form other than
cash, the value of such consideration shall be as determined in good faith by
the Board of Directors of the Company, whose determination shall be described in
a statement filed with the Rights Agent and shall be binding on the Rights Agent
and the holders of the Rights. Common Shares and Equivalent Shares owned by or
held for the account of the Company shall not be deemed outstanding for the
purpose of any such computation. Such adjustment shall be made successively
whenever such a record date is fixed, and in the event that such rights, options
or warrants are not so issued, the Purchase Price shall be adjusted to be the
Purchase Price which would then be in effect if such record date had not been
fixed.

                  (c) In case the Company shall, at any time after the date of
this Agreement, fix a record date for the making of a distribution to all
holders of the Common Shares or of any class or series of Equivalent Shares
(including any such distribution made in connection with a consolidation or
merger in which the Company is the continuing or surviving corporation) of
evidences of indebtedness or assets (other than a regular quarterly cash
dividend, if any, or a dividend payable in Common Shares) or subscription
rights, options or warrants (excluding those referred to in Section 11(b)),
then, in each such case, the Purchase Price to be in effect after such record
date shall be determined by multiplying the Purchase Price in effect immediately
prior to such record date by a fraction, the numerator of which shall be the
current market price (as determined pursuant to Section 11(d) hereof) of a
Common Share or an Equivalent Share on such record date, less the fair market
value (as determined in good faith by the Board of Directors of the Company,
whose determination shall be described in a statement filed with the Rights
Agent) of the portion of the cash, assets or evidences of indebtedness so to be
distributed or of such subscription rights or warrants applicable to a Common
Share or Equivalent Share, as the case may be, and the denominator of which
shall be such current market price (as determined pursuant to Section 11(d)
hereof) of a Common Share or Equivalent Share on such record date. Such
adjustments shall be made successively whenever such a record date is fixed, and
in the event that such distribution is not so made, the Purchase Price shall be
adjusted to be the Purchase Price which would have been in effect if such record
date had not been fixed.


                                      -15-

<PAGE>   19
                  (d) For the purpose of any computation hereunder, other than
computations made pursuant to Section 11(a)(iv) hereof, the "current per share
market price" of any security (a "Security" for the purpose of this Section
11(d)) on any date shall be deemed to be the average of the daily closing prices
per share of such Security for the thirty (30) consecutive Trading Days (as such
term is hereinafter defined) immediately prior to such date, and for purposes of
computations made pursuant to Section 11(a)(iv) hereof, the "current per share
market price" of any Security on any date shall be deemed to be the average of
the daily closing prices per share of such Security for the ten (10) consecutive
Trading Days immediately prior to such date; provided, however, that in the
event that the current per share market price of the Security is determined
during a period following the announcement by the issuer of such Security of (i)
a dividend or distribution on such Security payable in shares of such Security
or securities convertible into such shares or (ii) any subdivision, combination
or reclassification of such Security, and prior to the expiration of the
requisite thirty (30) Trading Day or ten (10) Trading Day period, after the
ex-dividend date for such dividend or distribution, or the record date for such
subdivision, combination or reclassification, then, and in each such case, the
current per share market price shall be appropriately adjusted to reflect the
current market price per share equivalent of such Security. The closing price
for each day shall be the last sale price, regular way, or, in case no such sale
takes place on such day, the average of the closing bid and asked prices,
regular way, in either case as reported in the principal consolidated
transaction reporting system with respect to securities listed or admitted to
trading on the New York Stock Exchange or, if the Security is not listed or
admitted to trading on the New York Stock Exchange, as reported in the principal
consolidated transaction reporting system with respect to securities listed on
the principal national securities exchange on which the Security is listed or
admitted to trading or, if the Security is not listed or admitted to trading on
any national securities exchange, the last sale price or, if such last sale
price is not reported, the average of the high bid and low asked prices in the
over-the-counter market, as reported by the National Association of Securities
Dealers, Inc. Automated Quotations System ("Nasdaq") or such other system then
in use, or, if on any such date the Security is not quoted by any such
organization, the average of the closing bid and asked prices as furnished by a
professional market maker making a market in the Security selected by the Board
of Directors of the Company. If on any such date no market maker is making a
market in the Common Shares, the fair value of such shares on such date as
determined in good faith by the Board of Directors of the Company shall be used.
The term "Trading Day" shall mean a day on which the principal national
securities exchange on which the Security is listed or admitted to trading is
open for the transaction of business or, if the Security is not listed or
admitted to trading on any national securities exchange, a Business Day. If the
Common Shares are not publicly held or so listed or traded, "current per share
market price" shall mean the fair value per share as determined in good faith by
the Board of Directors of the Company, whose determination shall be described in
a statement filed with the Rights Agent and shall be conclusive for all
purposes.

                  (e) Anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding, no
adjustment in the Purchase Price shall be required unless such adjustment would
require an increase or decrease of at least 1% in the Purchase Price; provided,
however, that any adjustments which by reason of this Section 11(e) are not
required to be made shall be carried forward and taken into account in any
subsequent adjustment. All calculations under this Section 11 shall be made to
the nearest cent or to the nearest ten-thousandth of a Common Share or other
share or one hundred-thousandth of a Preferred Share, as the case may be.
Notwithstanding the first sentence of this Section 11(e), any adjustment
required by this Section 11 shall


                                      -16-

<PAGE>   20
be made no later than the earlier of (i) three (3) years from the date of the
transaction which requires such adjustment or (ii) the Expiration Date.

                  (f) If as a result of an adjustment made pursuant to Section
11(a) or 13(a) hereof, the holder of any Right thereafter exercised shall become
entitled to receive any shares of capital stock other than Preferred Shares,
thereafter the number of such other shares so receivable upon exercise of any
Right and if required, the Purchase Price thereof, shall be subject to
adjustment from time to time in a manner and on terms as nearly equivalent as
practicable to the provisions with respect to the Common Shares contained in
Sections 11(a), (b), (c), (e), (h), (i), (j), (k), (l) and (m), and the
provisions of Sections 7, 9, 10, 13 and 14 with respect to the Preferred Shares
shall apply on like terms to any such other shares.

                  (g) All Rights originally issued by the Company subsequent to
any adjustment made to the Purchase Price hereunder shall evidence the right to
purchase, at the adjusted Purchase Price, the number of one-thousandths of a
Preferred Share purchasable from time to time hereunder upon exercise of the
Rights, all subject to further adjustment as provided herein.

                  (h) Unless the Company shall have exercised its election as
provided in Section 11(i), upon each adjustment of the Purchase Price as a
result of the calculations made in Section 11(b), each Right outstanding
immediately prior to the making of such adjustment shall thereafter evidence the
right to purchase, at the adjusted Purchase Price, that number of Preferred
Shares (calculated to the nearest one hundred-thousandth of a share) obtained by
(i) multiplying (x) the number of Preferred Shares covered by a Right
immediately prior to this adjustment, by (y) the Purchase Price in effect
immediately prior to such adjustment of the Purchase Price, and (ii) dividing
the product so obtained by the Purchase Price in effect immediately after such
adjustment of the Purchase Price.

                  (i) The Company may elect on or after the date of any
adjustment of the Purchase Price as a result of the calculations made in Section
11(b) to adjust the number of Rights, in substitution for any adjustment in the
number of Preferred Shares purchasable upon the exercise of a Right. Each of the
Rights outstanding after such adjustment of the number of Rights shall be
exercisable for the number of one-thousandths of a Preferred Share for which a
Right was exercisable immediately prior to such adjustment. Each Right held of
record prior to such adjustment of the number of Rights shall become that number
of Rights (calculated to the nearest one hundred-thousandth) obtained by
dividing the Purchase Price in effect immediately prior to adjustment of the
Purchase Price by the Purchase Price in effect immediately after adjustment of
the Purchase Price. The Company shall make a public announcement of its election
to adjust the number of Rights, indicating the record date for the adjustment,
and, if known at the time, the amount of the adjustment to be made. This record
date may be the date on which the Purchase Price is adjusted or any day
thereafter, but, if the Rights Certificates have been issued, shall be at least
ten (10) days later than the date of the public announcement. If Rights
Certificates have been issued, upon each adjustment of the number of Rights
pursuant to this Section 11(i), the Company shall, as promptly as practicable,
cause to be distributed to holders of record of Rights Certificates on such
record date Rights Certificates evidencing, subject to Section 14 hereof, the
additional Rights to which such holders shall be entitled as a result of such
adjustment, or, at the option of the Company, shall cause to be distributed to
such holders of record in substitution and replacement


                                      -17-

<PAGE>   21
for the Rights Certificates held by such holders prior to the date of
adjustment, and upon surrender thereof, if required by the Company, new Rights
Certificates evidencing all the Rights to which such holders shall be entitled
after such adjustment. Rights Certificates so to be distributed shall be issued,
executed and countersigned in the manner provided for herein (and may bear, at
the option of the Company, the adjusted Purchase Price) and shall be registered
in the names of the holders of record of Rights Certificates on the record date
specified in the public announcement.

                  (j) Irrespective of any adjustment or change in the Purchase
Price or the number of Preferred Shares issuable upon the exercise of the
Rights, the Rights Certificates theretofore and thereafter issued may continue
to express the Purchase Price per one one-thousandth of a Preferred Share and
the number of one-thousandths of a Preferred Share which were expressed in the
initial Rights Certificates issued hereunder.

                  (k) Before taking any action that would cause an adjustment
reducing the Purchase Price below the par or stated value, if any, of the number
of one-thousandths of a Preferred Share issuable upon exercise of the Rights,
the Company shall take any corporate action which may, in the opinion of its
counsel, be necessary in order that the Company may validly and legally issue as
fully paid and nonassessable shares such number of one-thousandths of a
Preferred Share at such adjusted Purchase Price.

                  (l) In any case in which this Section 11 shall require that an
adjustment in the Purchase Price be made effective as of a record date for a
specified event, the Company may elect to defer until the occurrence of such
event the issuing to the holder of any Right exercised after such record date of
the number of one-thousandths of a Preferred Share and other capital stock or
securities of the Company, if any, issuable upon such exercise over and above
the number of one-thousandths of a Preferred Share and other capital stock or
securities of the Company, if any, issuable upon such exercise on the basis of
the Purchase Price in effect prior to such adjustment; provided, however, that
the Company shall deliver to such holder a due bill or other appropriate
instrument evidencing such holder's right to receive such additional shares
(fractional or otherwise) upon the occurrence of the event requiring such
adjustment.

                  (m) Anything in this Section 11 to the contrary
notwithstanding, prior to the Distribution Date, the Company shall be entitled
to make such reductions in the Purchase Price, in addition to those adjustments
expressly required by this Section 11, as and to the extent that it in its sole
discretion shall determine to be advisable in order that any (i) consolidation
or subdivision of the Preferred or Common Shares, (ii) issuance wholly for cash
of any Preferred or Common Shares at less than the current market price, (iii)
issuance wholly for cash of Preferred or Common Shares or securities which by
their terms are convertible into or exchangeable for Preferred or Common Shares,
(iv) stock dividends or (v) issuance of rights, options or warrants referred to
in this Section 11, hereafter made by the Company to holders of its Preferred or
Common Shares shall not be taxable to such shareholders.

                  (n) The Company covenants and agrees that it shall not, at any
time after the Distribution Date, effect or permit to occur any Triggering Event
or Section 13 Event, if (i) at the time or immediately after such Triggering
Event or Section 13 Event there are any rights, warrants or other


                                      -18-

<PAGE>   22
instruments or securities outstanding or agreements in effect which would
substantially diminish or otherwise eliminate the benefits intended to be
afforded by the Rights or (ii) prior to, simultaneously with or immediately
after such Section 13 Event, the shareholders of the Person who constitutes, or
would constitute, the "Principal Party" for purposes of Section 13(b) hereof
shall have received a distribution of Rights previously owned by such Person or
any of its Affiliates and Associates.

                  (o) The Company covenants and agrees that, after the
Distribution Date, it will not, except as permitted by Sections 23, 24 or 27
hereof, take (or permit to be taken) any action if at the time such action is
taken it is reasonably foreseeable that such action will diminish substantially
or otherwise eliminate the benefits intended to be afforded by the Rights.

                  (p) Anything in this Agreement to the contrary
notwithstanding, in the event the Company shall at any time after the date of
this Agreement (A) declare a dividend on the Preferred Shares payable in
Preferred Shares, (B) subdivide the outstanding Preferred Shares, (C) combine
the outstanding Preferred Shares (by reverse stock split or otherwise) into a
smaller number of Preferred Shares, or (D) issue any shares of its capital stock
in a reclassification of the Preferred Shares (including any such
reclassification in connection with a consolidation or merger in which the
Company is the continuing or surviving corporation), then, in each such event,
except as otherwise provided in this Section 11 and Section 7(e) hereof: (1)
each of the Rights outstanding at the time of the record date for such dividend
or the effective date of such subdivision, combination or reclassification shall
be proportionately adjusted to that number of Rights (calculated to the nearest
one ten-thousandth (1/10,000) of a Right) equal to a fraction (the "Exchange
Fraction"), the numerator of which shall be the total number of Preferred Shares
or shares of capital stock issued in such reclassification of the Preferred
Shares outstanding immediately following such time and the denominator of which
shall be the total number of Preferred Shares outstanding immediately prior to
such time, and the number of Rights that shall thereafter be issued with respect
to each Common Share or share of other capital stock that shall be issued in a
reclassification of the Common Shares prior to the Distribution Date shall be
equal to the total number of outstanding Rights immediately after such event (as
adjusted pursuant to this clause (1)) divided by the total number of outstanding
Common Shares or shares of such other capital stock immediately after such event
(subject to further adjustment pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement);
(2) the Purchase Price in effect at the time of the record date for such
dividend or of the effective date of such subdivision, combination or
reclassification shall be adjusted so that the Purchase Price thereafter shall
equal the result obtained by dividing the Purchase Price in effect immediately
prior to such time by the Exchange Fraction; provided, however, that in no event
shall the consideration to be paid upon the exercise of one Right be less than
the aggregate par value of the shares of capital stock of the Company issuable
upon exercise of such Right; and (3) the number of one-thousandths of a
Preferred Share or share of such other capital stock issuable upon the exercise
of each Right shall remain unchanged immediately after such event, but, in the
event of a reclassification, the kind of shares issuable upon the exercise of
each Right immediately after such reclassification shall be adjusted to be the
kind of shares of such other capital stock issued in such reclassification,
rather than Preferred Shares.

         Section 12. Certificate of Adjusted Purchase Price or Number of Shares.
Whenever an adjustment is made as provided in Sections 11 and 13 hereof, the
Company shall promptly (a) prepare a certificate setting forth such adjustment
and a brief statement of the facts accounting for such


                                      -19-

<PAGE>   23
adjustment, (b) file with the Rights Agent and with each transfer agent for the
Preferred Shares a copy of such certificate and (c) mail a brief summary thereof
to each holder of a Rights Certificate in accordance with Section 26 hereof.
Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence, the failure of the Company to make such
certification or give such notice shall not affect the validity of such
adjustment or the force or effect of the requirement for such adjustment. The
Rights Agent shall be fully protected in relying on any such certificate and on
any adjustment contained therein and shall not be deemed to have knowledge of
such adjustment unless and until it shall have received such certificate.

         Section 13. Consolidation, Merger or Sale or Transfer of Assets or
Earning Power.

                  (a) In the event that, following the Shares Acquisition Date,
directly or indirectly:

                           (i) the Company shall consolidate with, or merge with
and into, any other Person (other than a Subsidiary of the Company in a
transaction the principal purpose of which is to change the state of
incorporation of the Company or which complies with Section 11(o) hereof);

                           (ii) any Person (other than a Subsidiary of the
Company in a transaction that complies with Section 11(o) hereof) shall
consolidate with the Company, or merge with and into the Company and the Company
shall be the continuing or surviving corporation of such consolidation or
merger; or

                           (iii) the Company shall sell or otherwise transfer
(or one or more of its Subsidiaries shall sell or otherwise transfer), in one or
more transactions, assets or earning power aggregating 50% or more of the assets
or earning power of the Company and its Subsidiaries (taken as a whole) to any
other Person or Persons (other than the Company or one or more of its wholly
owned Subsidiaries in one or more transactions, each of which complies with
Section 11(o) hereof),

                                    then, and in each such case, proper
provision shall be made so that

                                    (A) each holder of a Right (except as
otherwise provided herein) shall thereafter have the right to receive, upon the
exercise thereof in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, such number of
validly authorized and issued, fully paid and nonassessable Common Shares of the
Principal Party (as hereinafter defined), free of any liens, encumbrances,
rights of first refusal or other adverse claims, as shall be equal to the result
obtained by (1) multiplying the then current Purchase Price by the number of
one-thousandths of a Preferred Share for which a Right was exercisable
immediately prior to the first occurrence of a Section 13 Event (or, if a
Triggering Event has occurred prior to the first occurrence of a Section 13
Event, multiplying the number of such one-thousandths of a Preferred Share for
which a Right was exercisable immediately prior to the first occurrence of a
Triggering Event by the Purchase Price in effect immediately prior to such first
occurrence) and (2) dividing that product (which, following the first occurrence
of a Section 13 Event, shall be referred to as the "Total Exercise Price" for
each Right and for all purposes of this Agreement) by 50% of the current per
share market price (determined pursuant to Section 11(d) hereof) of the Common
Shares of such Principal Party on the date of consummation of such Section 13
Event;


                                      -20-

<PAGE>   24
                                    (B) such Principal Party shall thereafter be
liable for, and shall assume, by virtue of such Section 13 Event, all the
obligations and duties of the Company pursuant to this Agreement;

                                    (C) the term "Company" shall thereafter be
deemed to refer to such Principal Party, it being specifically intended that the
provisions of Section 11 hereof shall apply only to such Principal Party
following the first occurrence of a Section 13 Event;

                                    (D) such Principal Party shall take such
steps (including, but not limited to, the reservation of a sufficient number of
its Common Shares) in connection with the consummation of any such transaction
as may be necessary to assure that the provisions hereof shall thereafter be
applicable, as nearly as reasonably may be, in relation to its Common Shares
thereafter deliverable upon the exercise of the Rights.

                  (b) "Principal Party" shall mean, in the case of any
transaction described in clause (i), (ii) or (iii) of Section 13(a), the Person
or Acquiring Person referred to therein (or such Person's or Acquiring Person's
successor, including, if applicable, the Company, if it is the surviving
corporation), provided, however, that in any such case, (i) if such Person is a
direct or indirect Subsidiary of another Person, "Principal Party" shall refer
to such other Person and (ii) in case such Person is a Subsidiary, directly or
indirectly, of more than one Person, "Principal Party" shall refer to whichever
of such Persons is the issuer of the Common Shares having the greatest aggregate
value, and provided, further, that for purposes of transactions described in
clause (iii) hereof, "Principal Party" shall refer to that Person receiving the
greatest portion of the assets or earning power transferred pursuant to such
transaction or transactions.

                  (c) If, for any reason, the Rights cannot be exercised for
Common Shares of such Principal Party as provided in Section 13(a), then each
holder of Rights shall have the right to exchange its Rights for cash from such
Principal Party in an amount equal to the number of Common Shares that it would
otherwise be entitled to purchase times 50% of the current per share market
price, as determined pursuant to Section 11(d) hereof, of such Common Shares of
such Principal Party. If, for any reason, the foregoing formulation cannot be
applied to determine the cash amount into which the Rights are exchangeable,
then the Board of Directors, based upon the advice of one or more nationally
recognized investment banking firms, and based upon the total value of the
Company, shall determine such amount reasonably and with good faith to the
holders of Rights. Any such determination shall be final and binding on the
Rights Agent.

                  (d) Notwithstanding anything in this Agreement to the
contrary, Section 13 shall not be applicable to a transaction described in
clauses (i) and (ii) of Section 13(a) if: (i) such transaction is consummated
with a Person or Persons who acquired Common Shares pursuant to a Permitted
Offer (or a wholly-owned Subsidiary of any such Person or Persons); (ii) the
price per share of Common Shares offered in such transaction is not less than
the price per share of Common Shares paid to all holders of Common Shares whose
shares were purchased pursuant to such Permitted Offer; and (iii) the form of
consideration being offered to the remaining holders of Common Shares pursuant
to such transaction is


                                      -21-

<PAGE>   25
the same form as the form of consideration paid pursuant to such Permitted
Offer. Upon consummation of any such transaction contemplated by this Section
13(d), all Rights hereunder shall expire.

                  (e) The Company shall not consummate any Section 13 Event
unless the Principal Party shall have a sufficient number of authorized Common
Shares that have not been issued or reserved for issuance to permit the exercise
in full of the Rights in accordance with this Section 13 and unless prior
thereto the Company and such issuer shall have executed and delivered to the
Rights Agent a supplemental agreement confirming that such Principal Party
shall, upon consummation of such Section 13 Event, assume this Agreement in
accordance with Sections 13(a) and (b) hereof, that all rights of first refusal
or preemptive rights in respect of the issuance of Common Shares of such
Principal Party upon exercise of outstanding Rights have been waived, that there
are no rights, warrants, instruments or securities outstanding or any agreements
or arrangements which, as a result of the consummation of such transaction,
would eliminate or substantially diminish the benefits intended to be afforded
by the Rights and that such transaction shall not result in a default by such
Principal Party under this Agreement, and further providing that, as soon as
practicable after the date of such Section 13 Event, such Principal Party will:

                           (i) prepare and file a registration statement under
the Securities Act with respect to the Rights and the securities purchasable
upon exercise of the Rights on an appropriate form, use its best efforts to
cause such registration statement to become effective as soon as practicable
after such filing and use its best efforts to cause such registration statement
to remain effective (with a prospectus at all times meeting the requirements of
the Securities Act) until the Expiration Date, and similarly comply with
applicable state securities laws;

                           (ii) use its best efforts to list (or continue the
listing of) the Rights and the securities purchasable upon exercise of the
Rights on a national securities exchange or to meet the eligibility requirements
for quotation on Nasdaq; and

                           (iii) deliver to holders of the Rights historical
financial statements for such Principal Party which comply in all respects with
the requirements for registration on Form 10 (or any successor form) under the
Exchange Act.

                           In the event that at any time after the occurrence of
a Triggering Event some or all of the Rights shall not have been exercised at
the time of a transaction described in this Section 13, the Rights which have
not theretofore been exercised shall thereafter be exercisable in the manner
described in Section 13(a) (without taking into account any prior adjustment
required by Section 11(a)(ii)).

                  (f) The provisions of this Section 13 shall similarly apply to
successive mergers or consolidations or sales or other transfers.

         Section 14. Fractional Rights and Fractional Shares.


                                      -22-

<PAGE>   26
                  (a) The Company shall not be required to issue fractions of
Rights or to distribute Rights Certificates which evidence fractional Rights. In
lieu of such fractional Rights, there shall be paid to the registered holders of
the Rights Certificates with regard to which such fractional Rights would
otherwise be issuable, an amount in cash equal to the same fraction of the
current market value of a whole Right. For the purposes of this Section 14(a),
the current market value of a whole Right shall be the closing price of the
Rights for the Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which such
fractional Rights would have been otherwise issuable, as determined pursuant to
the second sentence of Section 11(d) hereof.

                  (b) The Company shall not be required to issue fractions of
Preferred Shares (other than fractions that are integral multiples of one
one-thousandth of a Preferred Share) upon exercise of the Rights or to
distribute certificates which evidence fractional Preferred Shares (other than
fractions that are integral multiples of one one-thousandth of a Preferred
Share). In lieu of fractional Preferred Shares that are not integral multiples
of one one-thousandth of a Preferred Share, the Company shall pay to the
registered holders of Rights Certificates at the time such Rights are exercised
as herein provided an amount in cash equal to the same fraction of the current
market value of a Common Share. For purposes of this Section 14(b), the current
market value of a Common Share shall be the closing price of a Common Share (as
determined pursuant to the second sentence of Section 11(d) hereof) for the
Trading Day immediately prior to the date of such exercise.

                  (c) The holder of a Right by the acceptance of the Right
expressly waives his or her right to receive any fractional Rights or any
fractional shares upon exercise of a Right.

         Section 15. Rights of Action. All rights of action in respect of this
Agreement, excepting the rights of action given to the Rights Agent under
Section 18 hereof, are vested in the respective registered holders of the Rights
Certificates (and, prior to the Distribution Date, the registered holders of the
Common Shares); and any registered holder of any Rights Certificate (or, prior
to the Distribution Date, of the Common Shares), without the consent of the
Rights Agent or of the holder of any other Rights Certificate (or, prior to the
Distribution Date, of the Common Shares), may, in his or her own behalf and for
his or her own benefit, enforce, and may institute and maintain any suit, action
or proceeding against the Company to enforce, or otherwise act in respect of,
his or her right to exercise the Rights evidenced by such Rights Certificate in
the manner provided in such Rights Certificate and in this Agreement. Without
limiting the foregoing or any remedies available to the holders of Rights, it is
specifically acknowledged that the holders of Rights would not have an adequate
remedy at law for any breach of this Agreement and will be entitled to specific
performance of the obligations under, and injunctive relief against actual or
threatened violations of, the obligations of any Person subject to this
Agreement.

         Section 16. Agreement of Rights Holders. Every holder of a Right, by
accepting the same, consents and agrees with the Company and the Rights Agent
and with every other holder of a Right that:

                  (a) prior to the Distribution Date, the Rights will be
transferable only in connection with the transfer of the Common Shares;


                                      -23-

<PAGE>   27
                  (b) after the Distribution Date, the Rights Certificates are
transferable only on the registry books of the Rights Agent if surrendered at
the principal office or offices of the Rights Agent designated for such
purposes, duly endorsed or accompanied by a proper instrument of transfer and
with the appropriate forms and certificates fully executed; and

                  (c) subject to Sections 6(a) and 7(f) hereof, the Company and
the Rights Agent may deem and treat the person in whose name the Rights
Certificate (or, prior to the Distribution Date, the associated Common Shares
certificate) is registered as the absolute owner thereof and of the Rights
evidenced thereby (notwithstanding any notations of ownership or writing on the
Rights Certificates or the associated Common Shares certificate made by anyone
other than the Company or the Rights Agent) for all purposes whatsoever, and
neither the Company nor the Rights Agent shall be affected by any notice to the
contrary.

         Section 17. Rights Certificate Holder Not Deemed a Shareholder. No
holder, as such, of any Rights Certificate shall be entitled to vote, receive
dividends or be deemed for any purpose the holder of the Preferred Shares or any
other securities of the Company which may at any time be issuable on the
exercise of the Rights represented thereby, nor shall anything contained herein
or in any Rights Certificate be construed to confer upon the holder of any
Rights Certificate, as such, any of the rights of a shareholder of the Company
or any right to vote for the election of directors or upon any matter submitted
to shareholders at any meeting thereof, or to give or withhold consent to any
corporate action, or to receive notice of meetings or other actions affecting
shareholders (except as provided in Section 25 hereof), or to receive dividends
or subscription rights, or otherwise, until the Right or Rights evidenced by
such Rights Certificate shall have been exercised in accordance with the
provisions hereof.

         Section 18. Concerning the Rights Agent.

                  (a) The Company agrees to pay to the Rights Agent reasonable
compensation for all services rendered by it hereunder and, from time to time,
on demand of the Rights Agent, its reasonable expenses and counsel fees and
other disbursements incurred in the administration and execution of this
Agreement and the exercise and performance of its duties hereunder. The Company
also agrees to indemnify the Rights Agent for, and to hold it harmless against,
any loss, liability or expense, incurred without negligence, bad faith or
willful misconduct on the part of the Rights Agent, for anything done or omitted
by the Rights Agent in connection with the acceptance and administration of this
Agreement, including the costs and expenses of defending against any claim of
liability in the premises. Anything in this Agreement to the contrary
notwithstanding, in no event shall the Rights Agent be liable for special,
indirect or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including but
not limited to lost profits), even if the Rights Agent has been advised of the
likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of the action.

                  (b) The Rights Agent shall be protected and shall incur no
liability for, or in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it in
connection with, its administration of this Agreement in reliance upon any
Rights Certificate or certificate for the Preferred Shares or Common Shares or
for other securities of the Company, instrument of assignment or transfer, power
of attorney, endorsement, affidavit, letter, notice, direction, consent,
certificate, statement or other paper or document believed by


                                      -24-

<PAGE>   28
it to be genuine and to be signed, executed and, where necessary, verified or
acknowledged, by the proper Person or Persons, or otherwise upon the advice of
counsel as set forth in Section 20 hereof.

         Section 19. Merger or Consolidation or Change of Name of Rights Agent.

                  (a) Any corporation into which the Rights Agent or any
successor Rights Agent may be merged or with which it may be consolidated, or
any corporation resulting from any merger or consolidation to which the Rights
Agent or any successor Rights Agent shall be a party, or any corporation
succeeding to the corporate trust business of the Rights Agent or any successor
Rights Agent, shall be the successor to the Rights Agent under this Agreement
without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of
any of the parties hereto; provided, however, that such corporation would be
eligible for appointment as a successor Rights Agent under the provisions of
Section 21 hereof. In case at the time such successor Rights Agent shall succeed
to the agency created by this Agreement, any of the Rights Certificates shall
have been countersigned but not delivered, any such successor Rights Agent may
adopt the countersignature of the predecessor Rights Agent and deliver such
Rights Certificates so countersigned; and in case at that time any of the Rights
Certificates shall not have been countersigned, any successor Rights Agent may
countersign such Rights Certificates either in the name of the predecessor
Rights Agent or in the name of the successor Rights Agent; and in all such cases
such Rights Certificates shall have the full force provided in the Rights
Certificates and in this Agreement.

                  (b) In case at any time the name of the Rights Agent shall be
changed and at such time any of the Rights Certificates shall have been
countersigned but not delivered, the Rights Agent may adopt the countersignature
under its prior name and deliver Rights Certificates so countersigned; and in
case at that time any of the Rights Certificates shall not have been
countersigned, the Rights Agent may countersign such Rights Certificates either
in its prior name or in its changed name; and in all such cases such Rights
Certificates shall have the full force provided in the Rights Certificates and
in this Agreement.

         Section 20. Duties of Rights Agent. The Rights Agent undertakes the
duties and obligations imposed by this Agreement upon the following terms and
conditions, by all of which the Company and the holders of Rights Certificates,
by their acceptance thereof, shall be bound:

                  (a) The Rights Agent may consult with legal counsel (who may
be legal counsel for the Company), and the opinion of such counsel shall be full
and complete authorization and protection to the Rights Agent as to any action
taken or omitted by it in good faith and in accordance with such opinion.

                  (b) Whenever in the performance of its duties under this
Agreement the Rights Agent shall deem it necessary or desirable that any fact or
matter (including, without limitation, the identity of any Acquiring Person and
the determination of "current per share market price") be proved or established
by the Company prior to taking or suffering any action hereunder, such fact or
matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically
prescribed) may be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by a
certificate signed by any one of the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive
Officer, the President, any Vice President, the Chief Financial Officer, the
Secretary or any Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Rights
Agent; and such certificate shall be full


                                      -25-

<PAGE>   29
authorization to the Rights Agent for any action taken or suffered in good faith
by it under the provisions of this Agreement in reliance upon such certificate.

                  (c) The Rights Agent shall be liable hereunder to the Company
and any other Person only for its own negligence, bad faith or willful
misconduct.

                  (d) The Rights Agent shall not be liable for or by reason of
any of the statements of fact or recitals contained in this Agreement or in the
Rights Certificates (except its countersignature thereof) or be required to
verify the same, but all such statements and recitals are and shall be deemed to
have been made by the Company only.

                  (e) The Rights Agent shall not be under any responsibility in
respect of the validity of this Agreement or the execution and delivery hereof
(except the due execution hereof by the Rights Agent) or in respect of the
validity or execution of any Rights Certificate (except its countersignature
thereof); nor shall it be responsible for any breach by the Company of any
covenant or condition contained in this Agreement or in any Rights Certificate;
nor shall it be responsible for any change in the exercisability of the Rights
or any adjustment in the terms of the Rights (including the manner, method or
amount thereof) provided for in Sections 3, 11, 13, 23 or 24, or the
ascertaining of the existence of facts that would require any such change or
adjustment (except with respect to the exercise of Rights evidenced by Rights
Certificates after receipt by the Rights Agent of a certificate furnished
pursuant to Section 12 describing such change or adjustment); nor shall it by
any act hereunder be deemed to make any representation or warranty as to the
authorization or reservation of any Preferred Shares to be issued pursuant to
this Agreement or any Rights Certificate or as to whether any Preferred Shares
will, when issued, be validly authorized and issued, fully paid and
nonassessable.

                  (f) The Company agrees that it will perform, execute,
acknowledge and deliver or cause to be performed, executed, acknowledged and
delivered all such further and other acts, instruments and assurances as may
reasonably be required by the Rights Agent for the carrying out or performing by
the Rights Agent of the provisions of this Agreement.

                  (g) The Rights Agent is hereby authorized and directed to
accept instructions with respect to the performance of its duties hereunder from
any one of the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the
President, any Vice President, the Chief Financial Officer, the Secretary or any
Assistant Secretary of the Company, and to apply to such officers for advice or
instructions in connection with its duties, and it shall not be liable for any
action taken or suffered by it in good faith in accordance with instructions of
any such officer or for any delay in acting while waiting for those
instructions. Any application by the Rights Agent for written instructions from
the Company may, at the option of the Rights Agent, set forth in writing any
action proposed to be taken or omitted by the Rights Agent under this Rights
Agreement and the date on and/or after which such action shall be taken or such
omission shall be effective. The Rights Agent shall not be liable for any action
taken by, or omission of, the Rights Agent in accordance with a proposal
included in any such application on or after the date specified in such
application (which date shall not be less than five (5) Business Days after the
date any officer of the Company actually receives such application, unless any
such officer shall have consented in writing to an earlier date) unless, prior
to taking any such action (or the effective date in the case of an omission),
the


                                      -26-

<PAGE>   30
Rights Agent shall have received written instructions in response to such
application specifying the action to be taken or omitted.

                  (h) The Rights Agent and any shareholder, director, officer or
employee of the Rights Agent may buy, sell or deal in any of the Rights or other
securities of the Company or become pecuniarily interested in any transaction in
which the Company may be interested, or contract with or lend money to the
Company or otherwise act as fully and freely as though it were not Rights Agent
under this Agreement. Nothing herein shall preclude the Rights Agent from acting
in any other capacity for the Company or for any other legal entity.

                  (i) The Rights Agent may execute and exercise any of the
rights or powers hereby vested in it or perform any duty hereunder either itself
or by or through its attorneys or agents, and the Rights Agent shall not be
answerable or accountable for any act, default, neglect or misconduct of any
such attorneys or agents or for any loss to the Company resulting from any such
act, default, neglect or misconduct, provided reasonable care was exercised in
the selection and continued employment thereof.

                  (j) No provision of this Agreement shall require the Rights
Agent to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability
in the performance of any of its duties hereunder or in the exercise of its
rights if there shall be reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such
funds or adequate indemnification against such risk or liability is not
reasonably assured to it.

                  (k) If, with respect to any Rights Certificate surrendered to
the Rights Agent for exercise or transfer, the certificate attached to the form
of assignment or form of election to purchase, as the case may be, has either
not been completed or indicates an affirmative response to clause 1 and/or 2
thereof, the Rights Agent shall not take any further action with respect to such
requested exercise or transfer without first consulting with the Company.

         Section 21. Change of Rights Agent. The Rights Agent or any successor
Rights Agent may resign and be discharged from its duties under this Agreement
upon thirty (30) days' notice in writing mailed to the Company and to each
transfer agent of the Preferred Shares and the Common Shares by registered or
certified mail, and to the holders of the Rights Certificates by first-class
mail. The Company may remove the Rights Agent or any successor Rights Agent upon
thirty (30) days' notice in writing, mailed to the Rights Agent or successor
Rights Agent, as the case may be, and to each transfer agent of the Preferred
Shares and the Common Shares by registered or certified mail, and to the holders
of the Rights Certificates by first-class mail. If the Rights Agent shall resign
or be removed or shall otherwise become incapable of acting, the Company shall
appoint a successor to the Rights Agent. If the Company shall fail to make such
appointment within a period of thirty (30) days after giving notice of such
removal or after it has been notified in writing of such resignation or
incapacity by the resigning or incapacitated Rights Agent or by the holder of a
Rights Certificate (who shall, with such notice, submit his or her Rights
Certificate for inspection by the Company), then the registered holder of any
Rights Certificate may apply to any court of competent jurisdiction for the
appointment of a new Rights Agent. Any successor Rights Agent, whether appointed
by the Company or by such a court, shall be a corporation organized and doing
business under the laws of the United States or of any state of the United
States, in good standing, which is authorized under such laws to exercise
corporate trust or shareholder services


                                      -27-

<PAGE>   31
powers and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state
authority and which has at the time of its appointment as Rights Agent a
combined capital and surplus of at least $50 million. After appointment, the
successor Rights Agent shall be vested with the same powers, rights, duties and
responsibilities as if it had been originally named as Rights Agent without
further act or deed; but the predecessor Rights Agent shall deliver and transfer
to the successor Rights Agent any property at the time held by it hereunder, and
execute and deliver any further assurance, conveyance, act or deed necessary for
the purpose. Not later than the effective date of any such appointment, the
Company shall file notice thereof in writing with the predecessor Rights Agent
and each transfer agent of the Preferred Shares and the Common Shares, and mail
a notice thereof in writing to the registered holders of the Rights
Certificates. Failure to give any notice provided for in this Section 21,
however, or any defect therein, shall not affect the legality or validity of the
resignation or removal of the Rights Agent or the appointment of the successor
Rights Agent, as the case may be.

         Section 22. Issuance of New Rights Certificates. Notwithstanding any of
the provisions of this Agreement or of the Rights to the contrary, the Company
may, at its option, issue new Rights Certificates evidencing Rights in such form
as may be approved by its Board of Directors to reflect any adjustment or change
in the Purchase Price and the number or kind or class of shares or other
securities or property purchasable under the Rights Certificates made in
accordance with the provisions of this Agreement. In addition, in connection
with the issuance or sale of Common Shares following the Distribution Date and
prior to the redemption or expiration of the Rights, the Company (a) shall, with
respect to Common Shares so issued or sold pursuant to the exercise of stock
options or under any employee plan or arrangement or upon the exercise,
conversion or exchange of the convertible subordinated debentures of the Company
outstanding at the date hereof or upon the exercise, conversion or exchange of
securities hereinafter issued by the Company and (b) may, in any other case, if
deemed necessary or appropriate by the Board of Directors of the Company, issue
Rights Certificates representing the appropriate number of Rights in connection
with such issuance or sale; provided, however, that (i) no such Rights
Certificate shall be issued and this sentence shall be null and void ab initio
if, and to the extent that, such issuance or this sentence would create a
significant risk of or result in material adverse tax consequences to the
Company or the Person to whom such Rights Certificate would be issued or would
create a significant risk of or result in such options' or employee plans' or
arrangements' failing to qualify for otherwise available special tax treatment
and (ii) no such Rights Certificate shall be issued if, and to the extent that,
appropriate adjustment shall otherwise have been made in lieu of the issuance
thereof.

         Section 23. Redemption.

                  (a) The Company may, at its option and with the approval of
the Board of Directors, at any time prior to the Close of Business on the
earlier of (i) the tenth day following the Shares Acquisition Date or such later
date as may be determined by action of a majority of Continuing Directors then
in office and publicly announced by the Company or (ii) the Final Expiration
Date, redeem all but not less than all the then outstanding Rights at a
redemption price of $0.01 per Right, appropriately adjusted to reflect any stock
split, stock dividend or similar transaction occurring after the date hereof
(such redemption price being herein referred to as the "Redemption Price") and
the Company may, at its option, pay the Redemption Price either in Common Shares
(based on the current per share market price thereof (as determined pursuant to
Section 11(d) hereof) at the time of redemption) or cash. Such


                                      -28-

<PAGE>   32
redemption of the Rights by the Company may be made effective at such time, on
such basis and with such conditions as the Board of Directors in its sole
discretion may establish; provided, however, if the Board of Directors of the
Company authorizes redemption of the Rights on or after the time a Person
becomes an Acquiring Person, then there must be Continuing Directors then in
office and such authorization shall require the concurrence of a majority of
such Continuing Directors.

                  (b) Immediately upon the action of the Board of Directors of
the Company ordering the redemption of the Rights, evidence of which shall have
been filed with the Rights Agent, and without any further action and without any
notice, the right to exercise the Rights will terminate and the only right
thereafter of the holders of Rights shall be to receive the Redemption Price.
The Company shall promptly give public notice of any such redemption; provided,
however, that the failure to give or any defect in, any such notice shall not
effect the validity of such redemption. Within ten (10) days after the action of
the Board of Directors ordering the redemption of the Rights, the Company shall
give notice of such redemption to the Rights Agent and the holders of the then
outstanding Rights by mailing such notice to all such holders at their last
addresses as they appear upon the registry books of the Rights Agent or, prior
to the Distribution Date, on the registry books of the transfer agent for the
Common Shares. Any notice which is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be
deemed given, whether or not the holder receives the notice. Each such notice of
redemption will state the method by which the payment of the Redemption Price
will be made. Neither the Company nor any of its Affiliates or Associates may
redeem, acquire or purchase for value any Rights at any time in any manner other
than that specifically set forth in this Section 23 or in Section 24 hereof, and
other than in connection with the purchase of Common Shares prior to the
Distribution Date.

         Section 24. Exchange.

                  (a) Subject to applicable laws, rules and regulations, and
subject to subsection (c) below, the Company may, at its option, by majority
vote of the Board of Directors and a majority vote of the Continuing Directors,
at any time after the occurrence of a Triggering Event, exchange all or part of
the then outstanding and exercisable Rights (which shall not include Rights that
have become void pursuant to the provisions of Section 7(e) hereof) for Common
Shares at an exchange ratio of one Common Share per Right, appropriately
adjusted to reflect any stock split, stock dividend or similar transaction
occurring after the date hereof (such exchange ratio being hereinafter referred
to as the "Ratio of Exchange"). Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Board of
Directors shall not be empowered to effect such exchange at any time after any
Person (other than the Company, any Subsidiary of the Company, any employee
benefit plan of the Company or any such Subsidiary, or any entity holding Common
Shares for or pursuant to the terms of any such plan), together with all
Affiliates and Associates of such Person, becomes the Beneficial Owner of 50% or
more of the Common Shares then outstanding.

                  (b) Immediately upon the action of the Board of Directors
ordering the exchange of any Rights pursuant to subsection (a) of this Section
24 and without any further action and without any notice, the right to exercise
such Rights shall terminate and the only right thereafter of a holder of such
Rights shall be to receive that number of Common Shares equal to the number of
such Rights held by such holder multiplied by the Ratio of Exchange. The Company
shall give public notice of any such exchange; provided, however, that the
failure to give, or any defect in, such notice shall not affect the


                                      -29-

<PAGE>   33
validity of such exchange. The Company shall mail a notice of any such exchange
to all of the holders of such Rights at their last addresses as they appear upon
the registry books of the Rights Agent. Any notice which is mailed in the manner
herein provided shall be deemed given, whether or not the holder receives the
notice. Each such notice of exchange will state the method by which the exchange
of the Common Shares for Rights will be effected and, in the event of any
partial exchange, the number of Rights which will be exchanged. Any partial
exchange shall be effected pro rata based on the number of Rights (other than
Rights which have become void pursuant to the provisions of Section 7(e) hereof)
held by each holder of Rights.

                  (c) In the event that there shall not be sufficient Common
Shares issued but not outstanding or authorized but unissued to permit any
exchange of Rights as contemplated in accordance with Section 24(a), the Company
shall either take such action as may be necessary to authorize additional Common
Shares for issuance upon exchange of the Rights or alternatively, at the option
of a majority of the Board of Directors, with respect to each Right (i) pay cash
in an amount equal to the Current Value (as hereinafter defined), in lieu of
issuing Common Shares in exchange therefor, or (ii) issue debt or equity
securities or a combination thereof, having a value equal to the Current Value,
in lieu of issuing Common Shares in exchange for each such Right, where the
value of such securities shall be determined by a nationally recognized
investment banking firm selected by the Board of Directors by majority vote of
the Board of Directors, or (iii) deliver any combination of cash, property,
Common Shares and/or other securities having a value equal to the Current Value
in exchange for each Right. For purposes of this Section 24(c) only, the Current
Value shall mean the product of the current per share market price of Common
Shares (determined pursuant to Section 11(d) on the date of the occurrence of
the event described above in subparagraph (a)) multiplied by the number of
Common Shares for which the Right otherwise would be exchangeable if there were
sufficient shares available. To the extent that the Company determines that some
action need be taken pursuant to clauses (i), (ii) or (iii) of this Section
24(c), the Board of Directors may temporarily suspend the exercisability of the
Rights for a period of up to sixty (60) days following the date on which the
event described in Section 24(a) shall have occurred, in order to seek any
authorization of additional Common Shares and/or to decide the appropriate form
of distribution to be made pursuant to the above provision and to determine the
value thereof. In the event of any such suspension, the Company shall issue a
public announcement stating that the exercisability of the Rights has been
temporarily suspended.

                   (d) The Company shall not be required to issue fractions of
Common Shares or to distribute certificates which evidence fractional Common
Shares. In lieu of such fractional Common Shares, there shall be paid to the
registered holders of the Rights Certificates with regard to which such
fractional Common Shares would otherwise be issuable, an amount in cash equal to
the same fraction of the current per share market value of a whole Common Share
(as determined pursuant to the second sentence of Section 11(d) hereof).

                  (e) The Company may, at its option, by majority vote of the
Board of Directors, at any time before any Person has become an Acquiring
Person, exchange all or part of the then outstanding Rights for rights of
substantially equivalent value, as determined reasonably and with good faith by
the Board of Directors, based upon the advice of one or more nationally
recognized investment banking firms.


                                      -30-

<PAGE>   34
                  (f) Immediately upon the action of the Board of Directors
ordering the exchange of any Rights pursuant to subsection (e) of this Section
24 and without any further action and without any notice, the right to exercise
such Rights shall terminate and the only right thereafter of a holder of such
Rights shall be to receive that number of rights in exchange therefor as has
been determined by the Board of Directors in accordance with subsection (e)
above. The Company shall give public notice of any such exchange; provided,
however, that the failure to give, or any defect in, such notice shall not
affect the validity of such exchange. The Company shall mail a notice of any
such exchange to all of the holders of such Rights at their last addresses as
they appear upon the registry books of the transfer agent for the Common Shares
of the Company. Any notice which is mailed in the manner herein provided shall
be deemed given, whether or not the holder receives the notice. Each such notice
of exchange will state the method by which the exchange of the Rights will be
effected.

         Section 25. Notice of Certain Events.

                  (a) In case the Company shall propose to effect or permit to
occur any Triggering Event described in Section 11(a)(ii)(A) or 11(a)(ii)(B) or
a Section 13 Event, the Company shall give notice thereof to each holder of
Rights in accordance with Section 26 hereof at least twenty (20) days prior to
occurrence of such Triggering Event or such Section 13 Event.

                  (b) In case any Triggering Event or Section 13 Event shall
occur, then, in any such case, the Company shall as soon as practicable
thereafter give to each holder of a Rights Certificate, in accordance with
Section 26 hereof, a notice of the occurrence of such event, which shall specify
the event and the consequences of the event to holders of Rights under Sections
11(a)(ii) and 13 hereof.

         Section 26. Notices. Notices or demands authorized by this Agreement to
be given or made by the Rights Agent or by the holder of any Rights Certificate
to or on the Company shall be sufficiently given or made if sent by first-class
mail, postage prepaid, addressed (until another address is filed in writing with
the Rights Agent) as follows:

                                    VIVUS, INC.
                                    545 Middlefield Road
`                                   Suite 200
                                    Menlo Park, California 94025
                                    Attention:  President

         Subject to the provisions of Section 21 hereof, any notice or demand
authorized by this Agreement to be given or made by the Company or by the holder
of any Rights Certificate to or on the Rights Agent shall be sufficiently given
or made if sent by first-class mail, postage prepaid, addressed (until another
address is filed in writing with the Company) as follows:

                                    FIRST INTERSTATE BANK OF CALIFORNIA
                                    345 California Street
                                    San Francisco, California 94104
                                    Attention:  Joseph W. Thatcher, Jr.


                                      -31-

<PAGE>   35
Notices or demands authorized by this Agreement to be given or made by the
Company or the Rights Agent to the holder of any Rights Certificate shall be
sufficiently given or made if sent by first-class mail, postage prepaid,
addressed to such holder at the address of such holder as shown on the registry
books of the Company.

         Section 27. Supplements and Amendments. Prior to the Distribution Date,
the Company may supplement or amend this Agreement in any respect without the
approval of any holders of Rights and the Rights Agent shall, if the Company so
directs, execute such supplement or amendment. From and after the Distribution
Date, the Company and the Rights Agent may from time to time supplement or amend
this Agreement without the approval of any holders of Rights in order to (i)
cure any ambiguity, (ii) correct or supplement any provision contained herein
which may be defective or inconsistent with any other provisions herein, (iii)
shorten or lengthen any time period hereunder (which lengthening or shortening,
following the first occurrence of an event set forth in the proviso to Section
23(a) hereof, shall be effective only if there are Continuing Directors and
shall require the concurrence of a majority of such Continuing Directors) or
(iv) to change or supplement the provisions hereunder in any manner that the
Company may deem necessary or desirable and that shall not adversely affect the
interests of the holders of Rights (other than an Acquiring Person or an
Affiliate or Associate of an Acquiring Person); provided, this Agreement may not
be supplemented or amended to lengthen, pursuant to clause (iii) of this
sentence, (A) a time period relating to when the Rights may be redeemed at such
time as the Rights are not then redeemable or (B) any other time period unless
such lengthening is for the purpose of protecting, enhancing or clarifying the
rights of, and/or the benefits to, the holders of Rights. Upon the delivery of a
certificate from an appropriate officer of the Company that states that the
proposed supplement or amendment is in compliance with the terms of this
Section 27, the Rights Agent shall execute such supplement or amendment. Prior
to the Distribution Date, the interests of the holders of Rights shall be deemed
coincident with the interests of the holders of Common Shares.

         Section 28. Successors. All the covenants and provisions of this
Agreement by or for the benefit of the Company or the Rights Agent shall bind
and inure to the benefit of their respective successors and assigns hereunder.

         Section 29. Determinations and Actions by the Board of Directors, etc.
For all purposes of this Agreement, any calculation of the number of Common
Shares outstanding at any particular time, including for purposes of determining
the particular percentage of such outstanding Common Shares of which any Person
is the Beneficial Owner, shall be made in accordance with the last sentence of
Rule 13d-3(d)(1)(i) of the General Rules and Regulations under the Exchange Act.
The Board of Directors of the Company (and, where specifically provided for
herein, the Continuing Directors) shall have the exclusive power and authority
to administer this Agreement and to exercise all rights and powers specifically
granted to the Board, or the Company (or, where specifically provided for
herein, the Continuing Directors), or as may be necessary or advisable in the
administration of this Agreement, including, without limitation, the right and
power to (i) interpret the provisions of this Agreement and (ii) make all
determinations deemed necessary or advisable for the administration of this
Agreement (including a determination to redeem or not redeem the Rights or to
amend the Agreement). All such actions, calculations, interpretations and
determinations (including, for purposes of clause (y) below, all omissions with
respect to the foregoing) which are done or made by the Board (or, where
specifically


                                      -32-

<PAGE>   36
provided for herein, by the Continuing Directors) in good faith, shall (x) be
final, conclusive and binding on the Company, the Rights Agent, the holders of
the Rights Certificates and all other parties and (y) not subject the Board or
the Continuing Directors to any liability to the holders of the Rights.

         Section 30. Benefits of this Agreement. Nothing in this Agreement shall
be construed to give to any Person other than the Company, the Rights Agent and
the registered holders of the Rights Certificates (and, prior to the
Distribution Date, the Common Shares) any legal or equitable right, remedy or
claim under this Agreement; but this Agreement shall be for the sole and
exclusive benefit of the Company, the Rights Agent and the registered holders of
the Rights Certificates (and, prior to the Distribution Date, the Common
Shares).

         Section 31. Severability. If any term, provision, covenant or
restriction of this Agreement is held by a court of competent jurisdiction or
other authority to be invalid, void or unenforceable, the remainder of the
terms, provisions, covenants and restrictions of this Agreement shall remain in
full force and effect and shall in no way be affected, impaired or invalidated;
provided, however, that notwithstanding anything in this Agreement to the
contrary, if any such term, provision, covenant or restriction is held by such
court or authority to be invalid, void or unenforceable and the Board of
Directors of the Company determines in its good faith judgment that severing the
invalid language from this Agreement would adversely affect the purpose or
effect of this Agreement, the right of redemption set forth in Section 23 hereof
shall be reinstated and shall not expire until the close of business on the
tenth day following the date of such determination by the Board of Directors.

         Section 32. Governing Law. This Agreement and each Right and each
Rights Certificate issued hereunder shall be deemed to be a contract made under
the laws of the State of Delaware and for all purposes shall be governed by and
construed in accordance with the laws of such State applicable to contracts to
be made and performed entirely within such State.

         Section 33. Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in any number
of counterparts and each of such counterparts shall for all purposes be deemed
to be an original, and all such counterparts shall together constitute but one
and the same instrument.

         Section 34. Descriptive Headings. Descriptive headings of the several
Sections of this Agreement are inserted for convenience only and shall not
control or affect the meaning or construction of any of the provisions hereof.



                                      -33-

<PAGE>   37
         IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be
duly executed as of the day and year first above written.


"COMPANY"                                   VIVUS, INC.


                                            By: //Leland F. Wilson//
                                               --------------------------------
                                            Name: Leland F. Wilson
                                                 ------------------------------
                                            Title: President and CEO
                                                  -----------------------------

"RIGHTS AGENT"                              FIRST INTERSTATE BANK OF CALIFORNIA


                                            By: //Joseph W. Thatcher, Jr.//
                                               --------------------------------
                                            Name: Joseph W. Thatcher, Jr.
                                                 ------------------------------
                                            Title: Assistant Vice President
                                                  -----------------------------


                                      -34-

<PAGE>   38
                                    EXHIBIT A

                CERTIFICATE OF DESIGNATION OF RIGHTS, PREFERENCES
                                AND PRIVILEGES OF

                     SERIES A PARTICIPATING PREFERRED STOCK

                                 OF VIVUS, INC.


         The undersigned, Leland F. Wilson and Mario M. Rosati do hereby
certify:

         1. That they are the duly elected and acting President and Secretary,
respectively, of Vivus, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the "Corporation").

         2. That pursuant to the authority conferred upon the Board of Directors
by the Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the said Corporation, the said
Board of Directors adopted the following resolution creating a series of 30,000
shares of Preferred Stock designated as Series A Participating Preferred Stock:

         "RESOLVED, that pursuant to the authority vested in the Board of
Directors of the corporation by the Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the
Board of Directors does hereby provide for the issue of a series of Preferred
Stock of the Corporation, to be designated "Series A Participating Preferred
Stock," initially consisting of 30,000 shares and to the extent that the
designations, powers, preferences and relative and other special rights and the
qualifications, limitations and restrictions of the Series A Participating
Preferred Stock are not stated and expressed in the Restated Certificate of
Incorporation, does hereby fix and herein state and express such designations,
powers, preferences and relative and other special rights and the
qualifications, limitations and restrictions thereof, as follows (all terms used
herein which are defined in the Restated Certificate of Incorporation shall be
deemed to have the meanings provided therein):

         Section 1. Designation and Amount. The shares of such series shall be
designated as "Series A Participating Preferred Stock," and the number of shares
constituting such series shall be 30,000.

         Section 2. Dividends and Distributions.

                  (A) Subject to the prior and superior right of the holders of
any shares of any series of Preferred Stock ranking prior and superior to the
shares of Series A Participating Preferred Stock with respect to dividends, the
holders of shares of Series A Participating Preferred Stock shall be entitled to
receive when, as and if declared by the Board of Directors out of funds legally
available for the purpose, quarterly dividends payable in cash on the last day
of September, December, March and June in each year (each such date being
referred to herein as a "Quarterly Dividend Payment Date"), commencing on the
first Quarterly Dividend Payment Date after the first issuance of a share or
fraction of a share of Series A



<PAGE>   39
Participating Preferred Stock, in an amount per share (rounded to the nearest
cent) equal to, subject to the provision for adjustment hereinafter set forth,
1,000 times the aggregate per share amount of all cash dividends, and 1,000
times the aggregate per share amount (payable in kind) of all non-cash dividends
or other distributions other than a dividend payable in shares of Common Stock
or a subdivision of the outstanding shares of Common Stock (by reclassification
or otherwise), declared on the Common Stock of the Corporation (the "Common
Stock") since the immediately preceding Quarterly Dividend Payment Date, or,
with respect to the first Quarterly Dividend Payment Date, since the first
issuance of any share or fraction of a share of Series A Participating Preferred
Stock. In the event the Corporation shall at any time after February 1, 1996
(the "Rights Declaration Date") (i) declare any dividend on Common Stock payable
in shares of Common Stock, (ii) subdivide the outstanding Common Stock, or (iii)
combine the outstanding Common Stock into a smaller number of shares, then in
each such case the amount to which holders of shares of Series A Participating
Preferred Stock were entitled immediately prior to such event under the
preceding sentence shall be adjusted by multiplying such amount by a fraction,
the numerator of which is the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding
immediately after such event and the denominator of which is the number of
shares of Common Stock that were outstanding immediately prior to such event.

                  (b) The Corporation shall declare a dividend or distribution
on the Series A Participating Preferred Stock as provided in paragraph (A) above
immediately after it declares a dividend or distribution on the Common Stock
(other than a dividend payable in shares of Common Stock).

                  (c) Dividends shall begin to accrue and be cumulative on
outstanding shares of Series A Participating Preferred Stock from the Quarterly
Dividend Payment Date next preceding the date of issue of such shares of Series
A Participating Preferred Stock, unless the date of issue of such shares is
prior to the record date for the first Quarterly Dividend Payment Date, in which
case dividends on such shares shall begin to accrue from the date of issue of
such shares, or unless the date of issue is a Quarterly Dividend Payment Date or
is a date after the record date for the determination of holders of shares of
Series A Participating Preferred Stock entitled to receive a quarterly dividend
and before such Quarterly Dividend Payment Date, in either of which events such
dividends shall begin to accrue and be cumulative from such Quarterly Dividend
Payment Date. Accrued but unpaid dividends shall not bear interest. Dividends
paid on the shares of Series A Participating Preferred Stock in an amount less
than the total amount of such dividends at the time accrued and payable on such
shares shall be allocated pro rata on a share-by-share basis among all such
shares at the time outstanding. The Board of Directors may fix a record date for
the determination of holders of shares of Series A Participating Preferred Stock
entitled to receive payment of a dividend or distribution declared thereon,
which record date shall be no more than 30 days prior to the date fixed for the
payment thereof.

         Section 3. Voting Rights. The holders of shares of Series A
Participating Preferred Stock shall have the following voting rights:

                  (a) Subject to the provision for adjustment hereinafter set
forth, each share of Series A Participating Preferred Stock shall entitle the
holder thereof to 1,000 votes on all matters submitted to a vote of the
stockholders of the Corporation. In the event the Corporation shall at any time
after the Rights Declaration Date (i) declare any dividend on Common Stock
payable in shares of Common Stock,


                                       -2-

<PAGE>   40
(ii) subdivide the outstanding Common Stock, or (iii) combine the outstanding
Common Stock into a smaller number of shares, then in each such case the number
of votes per share to which holders of shares of Series A Participating
Preferred Stock were entitled immediately prior to such event shall be adjusted
by multiplying such number by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number
of shares of Common Stock outstanding immediately after such event and the
denominator of which is the number of shares of Common Stock that were
outstanding immediately prior to such event.

                  (b) Except as otherwise provided herein or by law, the holders
of shares of Series A Participating Preferred Stock and the holders of shares of
Common Stock shall vote together as one class on all matters submitted to a vote
of stockholders of the Corporation.

                  (c) Except as required by law, holders of Series A
Participating Preferred Stock shall have no special voting rights and their
consent shall not be required (except to the extent they are entitled to vote
with holders of Common Stock as set forth herein) for taking any corporate
action.

         Section 4. Certain Restrictions.

                  (a) The Corporation shall not declare any dividend on, make
any distribution on, or redeem or purchase or otherwise acquire for
consideration any shares of Common Stock after the first issuance of a share or
fraction of a share of Series A Participating Preferred Stock unless
concurrently therewith it shall declare a dividend on the Series A Participating
Preferred Stock as required by Section 2 hereof.

                  (b) Whenever quarterly dividends or other dividends or
distributions payable on the Series A Participating Preferred Stock as provided
in Section 2 are in arrears, thereafter and until all accrued and unpaid
dividends and distributions, whether or not declared, on shares of Series A
Participating Preferred Stock outstanding shall have been paid in full, the
Corporation shall not

                           (A) declare or pay dividends on, make any other
distributions on, or redeem or purchase or otherwise acquire for consideration
any shares of stock ranking junior (either as to dividends or upon liquidation,
dissolution or winding up) to the Series A Participating Preferred Stock;

                           (B) declare or pay dividends on, make any other
distributions on any shares of stock ranking on a parity (either as to dividends
or upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up) with Series A Participating
Preferred Stock, except dividends paid ratably on the Series A Participating
Preferred Stock and all such parity stock on which dividends are payable or in
arrears in proportion to the total amounts to which the holders of all such
shares are then entitled;

                           (C) redeem or purchase or otherwise acquire for
consideration shares of any stock ranking on a parity (either as to dividends or
upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up) with the Series A Participating
Preferred Stock, provided that the Corporation may at any time redeem, purchase
or otherwise acquire shares of any such parity stock in exchange for shares of
any stock of the Corporation ranking junior (either as to dividends or upon
dissolution, liquidation or winding up) to the Series A Participating Preferred
Stock;


                                       -3-

<PAGE>   41
                           (D) purchase or otherwise acquire for consideration
any shares of Series A Participating Preferred Stock, or any shares of stock
ranking on a parity with the Series A Participating Preferred Stock, except in
accordance with a purchase offer made in writing or by publication (as
determined by the Board of Directors) to all holders of such shares upon such
terms as the Board of Directors, after consideration of the respective annual
dividend rates and other relative rights and preferences of the respective
series and classes, shall determine in good faith will result in fair and
equitable treatment among the respective series or classes.

                  (c) The Corporation shall not permit any subsidiary of the
Corporation to purchase or otherwise acquire for consideration any shares of
stock of the Corporation unless the Corporation could, under paragraph (A) of
this Section 4, purchase or otherwise acquire such shares at such time and in
such manner.

         Section 5. Reacquired Shares. Any shares of Series A Participating
Preferred Stock purchased or otherwise acquired by the Corporation in any manner
whatsoever shall be retired and canceled promptly after the acquisition thereof.
All such shares shall upon their cancellation become authorized but unissued
shares of Preferred Stock and may be reissued as part of a new series of
Preferred Stock to be created by resolution or resolutions of the Board of
Directors, subject to the conditions and restrictions on issuance set forth
herein.

         Section 6. Liquidation, Dissolution or Winding Up.

                  (a) Upon any liquidation (voluntary or otherwise), dissolution
or winding up of the Corporation, no distribution shall be made to the holders
of shares of stock ranking junior (either as to dividends or upon liquidation,
dissolution or winding up) to the Series A Participating Preferred Stock unless,
prior thereto, the holders of shares of Series A Participating Preferred Stock
shall have received $1,000.00 per share, plus an amount equal to accrued and
unpaid dividends and distributions thereon, whether or not declared, to the date
of such payment (the "Series A Liquidation Preference"). Following the payment
of the full amount of the Series A Liquidation Preference, no additional
distributions shall be made to the holders of shares of Series A Participating
Preferred Stock unless, prior thereto, the holders of shares of Common Stock
shall have received an amount per share (the "Common Adjustment") equal to the
quotient obtained by dividing (i) the Series A Liquidation Preference by (ii)
1,000 (as appropriately adjusted as set forth in subparagraph (C) below to
reflect such events as stock splits, stock dividends and recapitalization with
respect to the Common Stock) (such number in clause (ii), the "Adjustment
Number"). Following the payment of the full amount of the Series A Liquidation
Preference and the Common Adjustment in respect of all outstanding shares of
Series A Participating Preferred Stock and Common Stock, respectively, holders
of Series A Participating Preferred Stock and holders of shares of Common Stock
shall receive their ratable and proportionate share of the remaining assets to
be distributed in the ratio of the Adjustment Number to 1 with respect to such
Preferred Stock and Common Stock, on a per share basis, respectively.

                  (b) In the event, however, that there are not sufficient
assets available to permit payment in full to the Series A Liquidation
Preference and the liquidation preferences of all other series of Preferred
Stock, if any, which rank on a parity with the Series A Participating Preferred
Stock, then


                                       -4-

<PAGE>   42
such remaining assets shall be distributed ratably to the holders of such parity
shares in proportion to their respective liquidation preferences. In the event,
however, that there are not sufficient assets available to permit payment in
full of the Common Adjustment, then such remaining assets shall be distributed
ratably to the holders of Common Stock.

                  (c) In the event the Corporation shall at any time after the
Rights Declaration Date (i) declare any dividend on Common Stock payable in
shares of Common Stock, (ii) subdivide the outstanding Common Stock, or (iii)
combine the outstanding Common Stock into a smaller number of shares, then in
each such case the Adjustment Number in effect immediately prior to such event
shall be adjusted by multiplying such Adjustment Number by a fraction the
numerator of which is the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding
immediately after such event and the denominator of which is the number of
shares of Common Stock that were outstanding immediately prior to such event.

         Section 7. Consolidation, Merger, etc. In case the Corporation shall
enter into any consolidation, merger, combination or other transaction in which
the shares of Common Stock are exchanged for or changed into other stock or
securities, cash and/or any other property, then in any such case the shares of
Series A Participating Preferred Stock shall at the same time be similarly
exchanged or changed in an amount per share (subject to the provision for
adjustment hereinafter set forth) equal to 1,000 times the aggregate amount of
stock, securities, cash and/or any other property (payable in kind), as the case
may be, into which or for which each share of Common Stock is changed or
exchanged. In the event the Corporation shall at any time after the Rights
Declaration Date (i) declare any dividend on Common Stock payable in shares of
Common Stock, (ii) subdivide the outstanding Common Stock, or (iii) combine the
outstanding Common Stock into a smaller number of shares, then in each such case
the amount set forth in the preceding sentence with respect to the exchange or
change of shares of Series A Participating Preferred Stock shall be adjusted by
multiplying such amount by a fraction the numerator of which is the number of
shares of Common Stock outstanding immediately after such event and the
denominator of which is the number of shares of Common Stock that were
outstanding immediately prior to such event.

         Section 8. No Redemption. The shares of Series A Participating
Preferred Stock shall not be redeemable.

         Section 9. Ranking. The Series A Participating Preferred Stock shall
rank junior to all other series of the Corporation's Preferred Stock as to the
payment of dividends and the distribution of assets, unless the terms of any
such series shall provide otherwise.

         Section 10. Amendment. The Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the
Corporation shall not be further amended in any manner which would materially
alter or change the powers, preference or special rights of the Series A
Participating Preferred Stock so as to affect them adversely without the
affirmative vote of the holders of a majority or more of the outstanding shares
of Series A Participating Preferred Stock, voting separately as a class.

         Section 11. Fractional Shares. Series A Participating Preferred Stock
may be issued in fractions of a share which shall entitle the holder, in
proportion to such holder's fractional shares, to


                                       -5-

<PAGE>   43
exercise voting rights, receive dividends, participate in distributions and to
have the benefit of all other rights of holders of Series A Participating
Preferred Stock.

         RESOLVED FURTHER, that the President or any Vice President and the
Secretary or any Assistant Secretary of this corporation be, and they hereby
are, authorized and directed to prepare and file a Certificate of Designation of
Rights, Preferences and Privileges in accordance with the foregoing resolution
and the provisions of Delaware law and to take such actions as they may deem
necessary or appropriate to carry out the intent of the foregoing resolution."

         3. That the authorized number of shares of Preferred Stock of the
Corporation is 5,000,000 and that no such Preferred Stock has been issued.




            [The remainder of this page is intentionally left blank.]


                                       -6-

<PAGE>   44
         We further declare under penalty of perjury that the matters set forth
in the foregoing Certificate of Designation are true and correct of our own
knowledge.

         Executed at Menlo Park, California on June 18, 1996.



                                       //Leland F. Wilson//
                                       ----------------------------------------
                                       Leland F. Wilson, President



                                       //Mario M. Rosati//
                                       ----------------------------------------
                                       Mario M. Rosati, Secretary


                                       -7-

<PAGE>   45
                                    EXHIBIT B

                           FORM OF RIGHTS CERTIFICATE


Certificate No. R-                                                 _____ Rights


         NOT EXERCISABLE AFTER FEBRUARY 13, 2006 EARLIER IF TERMINATED BY THE
         COMPANY OR IF THE COMPANY EXCHANGES THE RIGHTS PURSUANT TO THE RIGHTS
         AGREEMENT. THE RIGHTS ARE SUBJECT TO REDEMPTION, AT THE OPTION OF THE
         COMPANY, AT $0.01 PER RIGHT ON THE TERMS SET FORTH IN THE RIGHTS
         AGREEMENT. UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES, RIGHTS BENEFICIALLY OWNED BY AN
         ACQUIRING PERSON OR AN AFFILIATE OR ASSOCIATE OF AN ACQUIRING PERSON
         (AS SUCH TERMS ARE DEFINED IN THE RIGHTS AGREEMENT) AND ANY SUBSEQUENT
         HOLDER OF SUCH RIGHTS MAY BECOME NULL AND VOID. [THE RIGHTS REPRESENTED
         BY THIS RIGHTS CERTIFICATE ARE OR WERE BENEFICIALLY OWNED BY A PERSON
         WHO WAS OR BECAME AN ACQUIRING PERSON OR AN AFFILIATE OR ASSOCIATE OF
         AN ACQUIRING PERSON (AS SUCH TERMS ARE DEFINED IN THE RIGHTS
         AGREEMENT). ACCORDINGLY, THIS RIGHTS CERTIFICATE AND THE RIGHTS
         REPRESENTED HEREBY MAY BECOME NULL AND VOID IN THE CIRCUMSTANCES
         SPECIFIED IN SECTION 7(E) OF SUCH RIGHTS AGREEMENT.]*


                               RIGHTS CERTIFICATE

                                   VIVUS, INC.


         This certifies that ______________________, or registered assigns, is
the registered owner of the number of Rights set forth above, each of which
entitles the owner thereof, subject to the terms, provisions and conditions of
the Rights Agreement dated as of February 13, 1996 (the "Rights Agreement"),
between Vivus, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the "Company"), and First
Interstate Bank of California ( the "Rights Agent"), to purchase from the
Company at any time after the Distribution Date (as such term is defined in the
Rights Agreement) and prior to 5:00 P.M., California time, on February 13, 2006
at the office of the Rights Agent designated for such purpose, or at the office
of its successor as Rights Agent, one one-thousandth of a fully paid
non-assessable share of Series A Participating Preferred Stock, no par value,
(the "Preferred Shares"), of the Company, at a purchase price of $.01 per
one-thousandth of a Preferred Share (the "Purchase Price"), upon presentation
and surrender of this

- - ----------------
* The portion of the legend in bracket shall be inserted only if applicable and
shall replace the preceding sentence.



<PAGE>   46
Rights Certificate with the Form of Election to Purchase and related Certificate
duly executed. The number of Rights evidenced by this Rights Certificate (and
the number of one-thousandths of a Preferred Share which may be purchased upon
exercise hereof) set forth above are the number and Purchase Price as of
February 13, 1996, based on the Preferred Shares as constituted at such date. As
provided in the Rights Agreement, the Purchase Price and the number and kind of
Common Shares or other securities which may be purchased upon the exercise of
the Rights evidenced by this Rights Certificate are subject to modification and
adjustment upon the happening of certain events.

                  This Rights Certificate is subject to all of the terms,
provisions and conditions of the Rights Agreement, which terms, provisions and
conditions are hereby incorporated herein by reference and made a part hereof
and to which Rights Agreement reference is hereby made for a full description of
the rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities hereunder
of the Rights Agent, the Company and the holders of the Rights Certificates,
which limitations of rights include the temporary suspension of the
exercisability of such Rights under the specific circumstances set forth in the
Rights Agreement. Copies of the Rights Agreement are on file at the principal
executive offices of the Company and the above-mentioned office of the Rights
Agent.

                  Subject to the provisions of the Rights Agreement, the Rights
evidenced by this Rights Certificate (i) may be redeemed by the Company, at its
option, at a redemption price of $0.01 per Right or (ii) may be exchanged by the
Company in whole or in part for Common Shares, substantially equivalent rights
or other consideration as determined by the Company.

                  This Rights Certificate, with or without other Rights
Certificates, upon surrender at the office of the Rights Agent designated for
such purpose, may be exchanged for another Rights Certificate or Rights
Certificates of like tenor and date evidencing Rights entitling the holder to
purchase a like aggregate amount of securities as the Rights evidenced by the
Rights Certificate or Rights Certificates surrendered shall have entitled such
holder to purchase. If this Rights Certificate shall be exercised in part, the
holder shall be entitled to receive upon surrender hereof another Rights
Certificate or Rights Certificates for the number of whole Rights not exercised.

                  No fractional portion of less than one one-thousandth of a
Preferred Share will be issued upon the exercise of any Right or Rights
evidenced hereby but in lieu thereof a cash payment will be made, as provided in
the Rights Agreement.

                  No holder of this Rights Certificate, as such, shall be
entitled to vote or receive dividends or be deemed for any purpose the holder of
the Preferred Shares or of any other securities of the Company which may at any
time be issuable on the exercise hereof, nor shall anything contained in the
Rights Agreement or herein be construed to confer upon the holder hereof, as
such, any of the rights of a shareholder of the Company or any right to vote for
the election of directors or upon any matter submitted to shareholders at any
meeting thereof, or to give or withhold consent to any corporate action, or to
receive notice of meetings or other actions affecting shareholders (except as
provided in the Rights Agreement), or to receive dividends or subscription
rights, or otherwise, until the Right or Rights evidenced by this Rights
Certificate shall have been exercised as provided in the Rights Agreement.


                                       -2-

<PAGE>   47
         This Rights Certificate shall not be valid or obligatory for any
purpose until it shall have been countersigned by the Rights Agent.

         WITNESS the facsimile signature of the proper officers of the Company
and its corporate seal. Dated as of ___________, 19__.


ATTEST:                                     VIVUS, INC.


_________________________________           By:________________________________
Mario M. Rosati, Secretary                  Leland F. Wilson, President



Countersigned:


FIRST INTERSTATE BANK OF CALIFORNIA
as Rights Agent


By:_____________________________
       Authorized Signature


                                       -3-

<PAGE>   48
                   FORM OF REVERSE SIDE OF RIGHTS CERTIFICATE

                               FORM OF ASSIGNMENT

                (To be executed by the registered holder if such
               holder desires to transfer the Rights Certificate)


                  FOR VALUE RECEIVED____________________hereby sells, assigns
and transfers unto
_______________________________________________________________________________
                 (Please print name and address of transferee)

_______________________________________________________________________________
this Rights Certificate, together with all right, title and interest therein,
and does hereby irrevocably constitute and appoint __________________________
Attorney, to transfer the within Rights Certificate on the books of the
within-named Company, with full power of substitution.


Dated: _______________, 19__


                                            ___________________________________
                                            Signature


Signature Guaranteed:

                  Signatures must be guaranteed by a member firm of a registered
national securities exchange, a member of the National Association of Securities
Dealers, Inc., or a commercial bank or trust company having an office or
correspondent in the United States.

<PAGE>   49
                                   CERTIFICATE


         The undersigned hereby certifies by checking the appropriate boxes
that:

                  (1) this Rights Certificate [ ] is [ ] is not being sold,
assigned and transferred by or on behalf of a Person who is or was an Acquiring
Person, or an Affiliate or Associate of any such Person (as such terms are
defined in the Rights Agreement);

                  (2) after due inquiry and to the best knowledge of the
undersigned, it [ ] did [ ] did not acquire the Rights evidenced by this Rights
Certificate from any Person who is, was or subsequently became an Acquiring
Person or an Affiliate or Associate of any such Person.

Dated: _______________, 19__



                                            ___________________________________
                                            Signature


Signature Guaranteed:

         Signatures must be guaranteed by a member firm of a registered national
securities exchange, a member of the National Association of Securities Dealers,
Inc., or a commercial bank or trust company having an office or correspondent in
the United States.

<PAGE>   50
             FORM OF REVERSE SIDE OF RIGHTS CERTIFICATE -- CONTINUED

                          FORM OF ELECTION TO PURCHASE

                      (To be executed if holder desires to
                        exercise the Rights Certificate)

To:      _____________________

                  The undersigned hereby irrevocably elects to exercise
_________________________ Rights represented by this Rights Certificate to
purchase the number of one-thousandths of a Preferred Share issuable upon the
exercise of such Rights and requests that certificates for such number of one-
thousandths of a Preferred Share issued in the name of:

Please insert social security
or other identifying number

_______________________________________________________________________________
                         (Please print name and address)

_______________________________________________________________________________

If such number of Rights shall not be all the Rights evidenced by this Rights
Certificate, a new Rights Certificate for the balance remaining of such Rights
shall be registered in the name of and delivered to:

Please insert social security
or other identifying number


_______________________________________________________________________________
                         (Please print name and address)

_______________________________________________________________________________


Dated: ___________________ , 19__



                                            ___________________________________
                                            Signature

Signature Guaranteed:

         Signatures must be guaranteed by a member firm of a registered national
securities exchange, a member of the National Association of Securities Dealers,
Inc., or a commercial bank or trust company having an office or correspondent in
the United States.

<PAGE>   51
                                   CERTIFICATE


         The undersigned hereby certifies by checking the appropriate boxes
that:

         (1) the Rights evidenced by this Rights Certificate [ ] are [ ] are not
being exercised by or on behalf of a Person who is or was an Acquiring Person or
an Affiliate or Associate of any such Person (as such terms are defined in the
Rights Agreement);

         (2) after due inquiry and to the best knowledge of the undersigned, it
[ ] did [ ] did not acquire the Rights evidenced by this Rights Certificate from
any Person who is, was or subsequently became an Acquiring Person or an
Affiliate or Associate of any such Person.

Dated: _______________, 19__



                                            ___________________________________
                                            Signature


Signature Guaranteed:

         Signatures must be guaranteed by a member firm of a registered national
securities exchange, a member of the National Association of Securities Dealers,
Inc., or a commercial bank or trust company having an office or correspondent in
the United States.

<PAGE>   52
             FORM OF REVERSE SIDE OF RIGHTS CERTIFICATE -- CONTINUED


                                     NOTICE


                  The signature in the foregoing Forms of Assignment and
Election must conform to the name as written upon the face of this Rights
Certificate in every particular, without alteration or enlargement or any change
whatsoever.

<PAGE>   53
                                    EXHIBIT C

                                   VIVUS, INC.

                             SHAREHOLDER RIGHTS PLAN

                                Summary of Rights


<TABLE>
<S>                                        <C>
Distribution and                           The Board of Directors has declared a dividend of one Right for
Transfer of Rights;                        each share of Vivus, Inc. Common Stock outstanding.  Prior to the
Rights Certificate:                        Distribution Date referred to below, the Rights will be evidenced by
                                           and trade with the certificates for the Common Stock.  After the
                                           Distribution Date, Vivus, Inc. (the "Company") will mail Rights
                                           certificates to the Company's stockholders and the Rights will
                                           become transferable apart from the Common Stock.

Distribution Date:                         Rights will separate from the Common Stock and become exercisable
                                           following the tenth day (or such later date as may be determined
                                           by a majority of the Directors not affiliated with the acquiring
                                           person or group (the "Continuing Directors")) after a person or
                                           group (a) acquires beneficial ownership of 20% or more of the
                                           Company's Common Stock or (b) announces a tender or exchange
                                           offer, the consummation of which would result in ownership by a
                                           person or group of 20% or more of the Company's Common Stock.

Preferred Stock                            After the Distribution Date, each Right will entitle the holder
Purchasable Upon                           to purchase, for $100.00 a fraction of a share of the Company's
Exercise of Rights:                        Preferred Stock with economic terms similar to that of one share of 
                                           the Company's Common Stock.

Flip-In:                                   If an acquiror (an "Acquiring Person") obtains 20% or more of the
                                           Company's Common Stock (other than pursuant to a tender offer
                                           deemed adequate and in the best interests of the Company and its
                                           shareholders by the Board of Directors (a "Permitted Offer")), then
                                           each Right (other than Rights owned by an Acquiring Person or its
                                           affiliates) will entitle the holder thereof to purchase, for the exercise
                                           price, a number of shares of the Company's Common Stock having
                                           a then current market value of twice the exercise price.

Flip-Over:                                 If, after the Shares Acquisition Date (defined below), (a) the
                                           Company merges into another entity, (b) an acquiring entity merges
                                           into the Company or (c) the Company sells more than 50% of the
                                           Company's assets or earning power, then each Right (other than
                                           Rights owned by an Acquiring Person or its affiliates) will entitle
                                           the holder thereof to purchase, for the exercise price, a number of
                                           shares of Common Stock of the person engaging in the transaction
                                           having a then current market value of twice the exercise price
</TABLE>


<PAGE>   54

<TABLE>
<S>                                        <C>
                                           (unless the transaction satisfies certain conditions and is consummated
                                           with a person who acquired shares pursuant to a Permitted Offer, in
                                           which case the Rights will expire).

Exchange Provision:                        At any time after an event triggering the flip-in or flip-over rights
                                           and prior to the acquisition by the Acquiring Person of 50% or
                                           more of the outstanding Common Stock, the Board of Directors of
                                           the Company may exchange the Rights (other than Rights owned by
                                           the Acquiring Person or its affiliates), in whole or in part, at an
                                           exchange ratio of one Common Share per Right (subject to
                                           adjustment).

Redemption of                              Rights will be redeemable at the Company's option for $0.01 per
the Rights:                                Right at any time on or prior to the tenth day (or such later date as
                                           may be determined by a majority of the Continuing Directors) after
                                           public announcement that a person has acquired beneficial ownership of
                                           20% or more of the Company's Common Stock (the "Shares Acquisition
                                           Date").

Expiration of
the Rights:                                The Rights expire on the earliest of (a) February 13, 2006, (b) exchange
                                           or redemption of the Rights as described above, or (c) consummation of a
                                           merger or consolidation resulting in expiration of the Rights as
                                           described above.

Amendment of                               The terms of the Rights and the Rights Agreement may be amended
Terms of Rights:                           in any respect without the consent of the Rights holders on or prior
                                           to the Distribution Date; thereafter, the terms of the Rights and the
                                           Rights Agreement may be amended without the consent of the Rights
                                           holders in order to cure any ambiguities or to make changes which do not
                                           adversely affect the interests of Rights holders (other than the
                                           Acquiring Person).

Voting Rights:                             Rights will not have any voting rights.

Anti-Dilution                              Rights will have the benefit of certain customary anti-dilution
Provisions:                                provisions.

Taxes:                                     The Rights distribution should not be taxable for federal income tax
                                           purposes.  However, following an event which renders the Rights
                                           exercisable or upon redemption of the Rights, shareholders may
                                           recognize taxable income.
</TABLE>


The foregoing is a summary of certain principal terms of the Shareholder Rights
Plan only and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the detailed terms of
the Rights Agreement dated as of February 13, 1996, between the Company and the
Rights Agent. Further details of the Rights are contained in a letter that will
be mailed to all the Company's stockholders.


                                                        -2-